Notes - January 22, 2007 Theory - Looking Backwards: The...

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January 22, 2007 Looking Backwards: The Rise of Social Science Theory - set of abstract explanations about how and why society operates - general ideas of how the world works - what are the underlying ideas about human needs Ibn Khaldun - formulated a model about society - contrasted tough nomadic tribes with sedentary tribes - sedentary societies are able to produce culture refinements, homes, tools, arts o start loving luxuries too much o politically people allow higher figures more control o these societies become vulnerable to the nomadic groups o eventually were conquered Comte - some consider founder of sociology - attempted to establish this new science (then called social physics) Historical Changes in the 1800’s - Political revolutions o French revolution Napoleon People wanted more power Aristocracy Church had power - The idea of Democracy o Everyone has a say in politics o Power to the people - Economic Revolution o Shift from agricultural to industrial o Capitalism o Futalism Relationship between people who worked the land and those who owned it Most of the old manors were bought out by capitalists Serfs “slave” with more rights controlled by the lords o average people have a right to open their own businesses o condemned usury lending money at interest was not allowed during this period - Urbanization
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o People moved from countryside into the cities o Conditions were terrible - Religious Change o Most of the theorists came from religious families o Interested in improving people’s lives o Many theorists were rejecting their religions - Enlightenment o Intellectuals who wrote during this period o Committed to use of reason, rationality, and scientific methods o Growth in university systems Became increasingly more secular o People wanted to know how to deal with the world o Very positive thinkers o Felt that progress was inevitable Recitation Vanina Leschziner O.H. Wed. 3:50-4:50 LSH B216 732-445-2445 vleschziner@sociology.rutgers.edu Social Change - Urbanization - Industrialization - Enlightenment o 16 th and 17 th century o reason - Adam Smith o Economic theory o Invisible hand Free trade People should be left alone - Individualism - Beliefs - Culture - Social Interactions - Values - Social Institutions - Individual – Social - Personal – Cultural - Individual Action – Social Structure - People should have shared values
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January 24, 2007 I. Historical Changes (cont.) a. Is “progress inevitable? i.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course SOC 313 taught by Professor Lapointe during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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Notes - January 22, 2007 Theory - Looking Backwards: The...

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