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1Mariah MauneySPCE 689-814Teaching Expressive LanguageHow People Learn to SpeakThe Joy of Hearing the First WordoMand training can be used to promote language development in children whootherwise ‘do not show a desire to speak.’oIn ABA, language is described in terms of function; therefore, ABA-basedinterventions follow a path that starts with the most meaningful language functionfor the individual and progresses into more abstract and social functions oflanguage.Typical Language DevelopmentoThe first words produced by a child are the result of many prerequisite milestonesand environmental factors that provided the foundation for them.Birth to 3 monthsReacts to soundsCalms when spoken toMakes pleasure soundsCries differently according to needs4 to 6 monthsFollows sounds with eyesResponds to change in tone of voiceBabbles and laughsNotices music and toys that make sounds7 months to 1 yearPlays peek-a-boo and pat-a-cakeLooks in the direction of soundResponds to “come here”Uses longer babbling, imitates speech soundsSays 1 or 2 words by first birthday1 year to 2 yearsPoints to some body partsUses new words on a consistent basisUses 2-word questionsUses consonant sounds at the beginning of wordsPoints to pictures in books2 to 3 yearsHas a word for almost everythingUses 2- or 3-word phrases to describe and ask for itemsSpeaks in a way that is understood by familyNames objects to ask for them or direct attention to them3 to 4 yearsHears name when called from another roomAnswers who, what, where, when, and why questionsTalks about the day’s activitiesUses sentences with 4 or more words4 to 5 years
2Can answer questions about a short storyUnderstands what is said at home and schoolProvides detailed sentencesSays most sounds correctlyUses rhyming wordsUses adult grammarBehavior Analytic Approach to Language DevelopmentoBehavior analysts view language development according to its various functions.oSkinner defined verbal behavior as, “Behavior that is reinforced through themediation of other persons.”Verbal language has a purpose for the speaker.Verbal operants are units of analysis for the use of words, resulting insome form of reinforcement related to the use of the word.Mands – Requests for something reinforcingTacts – Identifying objects, items or events and giving them a labelEchoics – Repeating what is heardIntraverbal behavior – Social exchange of verbal communicationoThe verbal behavior approach makes language intervention and other skillsrelated to language acquisition and functional use of language the primaryoutcome of ABA therapy, which coincides with the communication deficitsassociated with ASD.

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