Glencoe Health Chapter #4.pdf - Physical Activity for Life Physical Activity and Your Health Fitness and You Planning a Personal Activity Program

Glencoe Health Chapter #4.pdf - Physical Activity for Life...

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Unformatted text preview: Physical Activity for Life Physical Activity and Your Health Fitness and You Planning a Personal Activity Program Training and Safety for Physical Activities Physical Activity Injuries 72 What’s Your Health Status? Read each statement below and respond by writing yes, no, or sometimes for each item. Write yes only for items that you practice regularly. 1. I participate in some form of physical activity every day. 2. Whenever possible, I walk rather than drive or get a ride. 3. My level of physical activity helps me maintain a healthy weight range. 4. I enjoy a wide variety of physical activities and sports. 5. I participate in aerobic activities such as cycling, swimming, or in-line skating. 6. I follow a nutritious diet; avoid harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; and get adequate rest. 7. I do at least 20 minutes of nonstop vigorous exercise a minimum of three times a week. 8. When I buy athletic equipment, safety is a primary consideration. 9. I take proper precautions to minimize the risk of injury while engaging in physical activities. 10. I know and follow safety rules for the activities in which I participate. Using Visuals. You know that being active is important to your physical health, but do you realize how it affects your mental/emotional and social health? Give two examples of how the physical activity pictured here helps these teens keep their health triangles in balance. For instant feedback on your health status, go to Chapter 4 Health Inventory at health.glencoe.com. 73 Physical Activity and Your Health VOCABULARY physical activity physical fitness sedentary lifestyle osteoporosis metabolism YOU’LL LEARN TO • Understand the importance of regular physical activity for enhancing and maintaining personal health throughout the life span. • Examine the effects of regular physical activity on body systems. • Analyze the relationship between regular physical activity and disease prevention. • Discover ways to incorporate physical activity into daily life. On a sheet of paper, make a list of the physical activities in which you participate on a regular basis. Then add to your list three others you would like to try. Briefly describe why each of these activities appeals to you. W Tasks such as vacuuming, raking leaves, or washing the car can help you fit more physical activity into your life. What physical activities do you include in your daily routine? 74 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life hat kinds of physical activities do you enjoy? Do you like to play basketball? Maybe you prefer skiing, riding mountain bikes, or playing volleyball. Whatever your preference, regular physical activity enhances your health. What Is Physical Activity? P hysical activity is any form of movement that causes your body to use energy. It may be purposeful, such as when you exercise or play sports. It may also occur as part of your regular routine—for example, when you wash the car or take the dog for a walk. Many forms of physical activity can improve your level of physical fitness, the ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough reserve energy to respond to unexpected demands. Maintaining a high level of physical fitness gives you a sense of total well-being and is an important lifelong health goal. What Are the Benefits of Physical Activity? P hysical activity provides health benefits that last a lifetime. It helps strengthen not only the physical but also the mental/ emotional and social sides of your health triangle. Benefits to Physical Health Physical activity makes your body stronger, increases your energy, and improves your posture. It can reduce chronic fatigue and stiffness and can improve motor responses. It strengthens your muscles and bones and helps reduce the risk of many serious diseases. Regular physical activity also contributes to the functioning of many body systems, including the following: 䊳 Cardiovascular System. Regular physical activity strengthens the heart muscle, allowing it to pump blood more efficiently. 䊳 Respiratory System. When you engage in regular physical activity, your respiratory system begins to work more efficiently— you can breathe larger amounts of air, and the muscles used in respiration don’t tire as quickly. This helps you perform such activities as running farther without getting out of breath. 䊳 Nervous System. By helping you respond more quickly to stimuli, physical activity can improve your reaction time. This is especially helpful when driving or cycling. Benefits to Mental/ Emotional Health cardiovascular and respiratory systems To learn more about the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, see Chapter 16, page 414. nervous system For more information on the nervous system, see Chapter 15, page 399. Participating in a community event such as the one shown here is a good way to be physically active, to help others, and to engage in positive social interaction. Being physically active has many positive effects on your mental/emotional health. It can help reduce stress. Doing some stretching exercises before bed, for example, can help you relax tense muscles and sleep better after a difficult day at school. Physical activity also allows you to manage anger or frustration in a healthy way. By stimulating the release of certain chemicals that affect the brain, physical activity can improve your Lesson 1 Physical Activity and Your Health 75 mood and decrease your risk of depression. Other ways that physical activity benefits your mental/emotional health include 䊳 helping you look and feel better, which can increase your self-confidence. 䊳 contributing to a positive self-concept by giving you a sense of pride and accomplishment in taking care of yourself. 䊳 reducing mental fatigue by bringing more oxygen to the brain. This improves your concentration, allowing you to think more clearly and work more productively. 䊳 giving you a “can-do” spirit when faced with new challenges. Promote the Benefits of Physical Activity In this activity you will think of ways that different activities benefit all three parts of the health triangle. Then you’ll choose an activity and create a plan to try it out. What You’ll Need • • paper and pencil markers or colored pencils What You’ll Do 1. Make a four-column chart on a sheet of paper. Label the columns “Activity,” “Physical,” “Mental/Emotional,” and “Social.” 2. Work in a group of three. Take turns identifying and recording a physical activity that you enjoy. Then work 76 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life together to think of a physical, mental/ emotional, and social benefit of each activity listed. Record these in the appropriate columns. 3. Choose one of the activities on your chart. Using markers or colored pencils, create an ad that illustrates the physical, mental/emotional, and social benefits of that activity. Present your finished ad to the class. Apply and Conclude Based on class presentations, choose an activity that you’re interested in but have never tried. Write a plan to try the activity to see if you like it. Benefits to Social Health Are you a member of a recreational or school team? Do you swim laps at a neighborhood pool? Do you like hiking or exploring trails in your community? If so, you have probably met—and possibly formed friendships with—others who share your interests. Participating in a fitness regimen with friends can be fun and may motivate you to stick with your fitness program; in turn, you can help motivate your friends. Physical activity can also benefit social health by 䊳 building self-confidence, which helps you cope better in social situations, such as when you meet new people. 䊳 giving you the opportunity to interact and cooperate with others. 䊳 helping you manage stress, which can enhance your relationships with others. Responsibility. When you participate in regular physical activity, you take responsibility for your health. By taking care of yourself, you are saying that you are worth investing in. Be positive about the benefits these activities bring you, and don’t forget to compliment yourself: “I like how I feel, and I like how I look!” Write three other positive statements that reflect the benefits you receive from regular physical activity. Risks of Physical Inactivity A ccording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), some teens do not make physical activity a part of their lives. The CDC’s findings, compiled in its CDC Fact Book 2000/2001, include these troubling facts about the level of physical activity among U.S. high school students. 䊳 More than one in three teens (35 percent) do not participate regularly in vigorous physical activity (that is, for at least 20 minutes three times a week). 䊳 Regular participation in vigorous physical activity declines significantly during the teen years, from 73 percent of ninth graders to 61 percent of twelfth graders. 䊳 Only 29 percent of teens attend a daily physical education class—a serious decline from 42 percent in 1991. Clearly, many teens have a sedentary lifestyle, or a way of life that involves little physical activity. They may spend much of their time watching TV, playing video games, or working on the computer rather than being physically active. The negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle may include 䊳 unhealthful weight gain, which is linked to several potentially life-threatening conditions, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among Americans. Diabetes is a serious disorder that prevents the body from converting food into energy. diabetes For more information on reducing your risk of developing diabetes, see Chapter 26, page 691. Lesson 1 Physical Activity and Your Health 77 The number of obese adult Americans doubled between 1980 and 1999. During the same period, the number of overweight teens tripled. In children and teens, these weight increases correspond to higher occurrences of asthma and type 2 diabetes. Eating a wellbalanced diet and increasing the amount of physical activity can help reverse these trends. 䊳 an increased risk of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, producing porous and fragile bones. Porous and fragile bones fracture more easily than healthy bones. 䊳 a reduced ability to manage stress. 䊳 decreased opportunities to meet and form friendships with active people who value and live a healthy lifestyle. You can lower your risk of these and many other health problems by including more physical activity in your daily life. For example, when you go shopping, walk to the store or, if you have to drive, park farther away from the entrance. Figure 4.1 suggests other healthful alternatives to sedentary activities. A PPROACHES TO E VERYDAY A CTIVITIES Instead of . . . Try . . . • Taking an elevator or escalator • Playing video or computer games • Getting a ride to a friend’s house • Using a shopping cart • Watching TV or taking a nap • Taking the car through a car wash • Taking the stairs • Playing soccer, basketball, or tennis • Walking, skating, or riding your bike there • Carrying groceries to the car • Gardening or mowing the lawn • Washing the car yourself Physical Activity and Weight Control T he CDC reports that more than one-half of American adults and 14 percent of teens are overweight. This situation can be traced to a sedentary lifestyle and overeating. To stay within a weight range that is healthy for you, it’s important to develop good eating habits and be physically active on a regular basis. Understanding how the food you eat gets converted into energy can help you maintain a healthy weight. Metabolism is the process by which your body gets energy from food. Food’s energy value is measured in units of heat called calories. Your body needs a sufficient number of calories each day to function properly. Additional calories must be burned through physical activity or they will be stored in the body as fat. When you are physically active, your metabolic rate rises and your body burns more calories than when it is at rest. The number of calories burned depends in part on the nature of the 78 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life activity. When you stop being active, your metabolic rate slowly returns to normal. For several hours afterward, however, you continue to burn more calories than you did before you began the activity. Hiking is a physical activity that you can enjoy throughout your life. Name two safety considerations to keep in mind while hiking. Fitting Physical Activity into Your Life H ealth professionals recommend that teens incorporate 60 minutes of moderate physical activity into their daily lives. This may sound difficult, but it doesn’t have to be. Any activities that get you moving count toward your daily total. For example, walk or bike to school instead of getting a ride. Suggest to your family that you go for a hike or a swim on the weekend. Organize a basketball game with friends. Be sure to include some activities that you can participate in throughout your life. Hiking, swimming, golfing, biking, racquetball, tennis, and bowling are just a few examples of lifelong activities. Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 1. What is the difference between physical activity and physical fitness? 2. Examine and briefly describe the effects of regular physical activity on three body systems. 3. Analyze the relationship between regular physical activity and disease prevention. Thinking Critically Applying Health Skills Advocacy. Design a pamphlet with eyecatching headlines and graphics to educate younger students about the importance of physical activity. Your pamphlet should encourage and guide them to determine and then participate in the types of physical activity best suited to their interests and abilities. 4. Analyzing. Explain why watching television and walking affect metabolism differently. 5. Synthesizing. Why does it take longer to get the maximum health benefit from a leisurely walk than from swimming laps? WORD PROCESSING Word processing can give your pamphlet a professional look. See health.glencoe.com for tips on how to get the most from your word-processing program. Lesson 1 Physical Activity and Your Health 79 Fitness and You VOCABULARY cardiorespiratory endurance muscular strength muscular endurance flexibility body composition exercise aerobic exercise anaerobic exercise YOU’LL LEARN TO • Identify and describe the five areas of health-related fitness. • Examine the relationship among body composition, diet, and fitness. • Understand how to improve each of the five areas of health-related fitness. • Examine the effects of fitness on body systems. What does it mean to be physically fit? Write “Physical Fitness” at the top of a sheet of paper. Then write all the ways you can think of to describe a person’s level of physical fitness. D o you have trouble running a mile even though you work out three times a week? Does your best friend excel at track but have a hard time doing push-ups? As you can see from these examples, every person’s level of physical fitness is different. Elements of Fitness T o have total fitness, you need to take into account the five areas of health-related fitness. These are the areas that affect your overall health and well-being. These teens are improving their fitness levels. Explain how this activity improves cardiorespiratory endurance. 80 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life 䊳 Cardiorespiratory endurance—the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to utilize and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity. 䊳 Muscular strength—the amount of force a muscle can exert. 䊳 Muscular endurance—the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued. 䊳 Flexibility—the ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. 䊳 Body composition—the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons. As you do the step test, your heart rate increases. Explain why physical activity causes your heart to beat faster. Various activities and tests can help you evaluate each area of fitness. When you know your strengths and weaknesses, you can take steps to improve your physical fitness through exercise. Exercise is purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and that improves or maintains personal fitness. Measuring Cardiorespiratory Endurance Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Keeping your cardiovascular system healthy is the most effective way of reducing your risk of developing this life-threatening disease. Cardiovascular health depends on maintaining good cardiorespiratory endurance. Can you run a mile without stopping or hike for most of the day without getting tired? If so, you have good cardiorespiratory endurance. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE—STEP TEST The three-minute step test can be used to measure your cardiorespiratory endurance. This test enables you to determine the rate at which your heart beats following a period of physical activity. 1. Use a sturdy bench about 12 inches high. Fully extending each leg as you step, step up with your right foot and then with your left. Then step down with your right foot first. 2. Repeat at the rate of 24 steps per minute for three minutes. 3. Take your pulse. To do this, find a pulse point on your wrist using the first two fingers of your other hand. Do not use the thumb, which has its own pulse. If you have trouble finding the pulse in your wrist, try finding the pulse point in your neck just below your jaw. Count the number of beats you feel for one minute. STEP TEST SCORING CHART 4. Find your pulse rate on the chart to evaluate your cardiorespiratory endurance. Beats/ Minute Rating Measuring Muscular Strength and Endurance 85–95 Excellent You need muscular strength for activities that involve lifting, pushing, or jumping and muscular endurance to perform such activities repeatedly. Having good muscular strength and endurance gives you the necessary power to carry out your daily tasks without becoming fatigued. People with good muscular strength and endurance often have better posture and fewer back problems. 96–105 Good 106–125 Fair 126 or more Needs Improvement Lesson 2 Fitness and You 81 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE—CURL-UPS Curl-ups measure abdominal strength. How might abdominal strength improve your posture? The body has different muscle groups, so there are different ways to measure muscular strength and endurance. Curl-ups often are used to measure abdominal strength. 1. Lie on your back with your knees bent at about a 45-degree angle and your feet slightly apart. Position your arms at your sides. CURL-UPS HEALTHY RANGE SCORING CHART Age Male 13 Female 21 or more 18 or more 14+ 24 or more 18 or more 2. With your heels flat on the floor, curl your shoulders slowly off the ground, moving your arms forward toward your feet as you rise. 3. Slowly return to the original position. Do one curl-up every three seconds; continue until you can’t do any more at the specified pace. 4. Find your score on the chart to rate your abdominal strength. UPPER BODY STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE—ARM HANG The arm hang is one test that is used to measure upper body strength and endurance. For this test, work with two other people. 1. Grasp the horizontal bar with your palms facing away from you. The arm hang is used to measure upper body strength and endurance. What are the benefits of having good upper body strength and endurance? 2. Raise your body so that your chin is above the bar and your elbows are flexed to hold your chest near the bar. One person should act as a spotter to make sure that you are not swinging as you hang from the bar. 3. Hold the position described in Step 2 for as long as possible. The third person will time yo...
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