Unformatted text preview: Physical Activity for Life
Physical Activity and
Fitness and You
Planning a Personal
Training and Safety for
Injuries 72 What’s Your Health Status?
Read each statement below and
respond by writing yes, no, or sometimes
for each item. Write yes only for items
that you practice regularly.
1. I participate in some form of
physical activity every day.
2. Whenever possible, I walk rather
than drive or get a ride.
3. My level of physical activity helps
me maintain a healthy weight range.
4. I enjoy a wide variety of physical
activities and sports.
5. I participate in aerobic activities
such as cycling, swimming, or
6. I follow a nutritious diet; avoid
harmful substances such as
tobacco, alcohol, and other
drugs; and get adequate rest.
7. I do at least 20 minutes of
nonstop vigorous exercise a
minimum of three times a week.
8. When I buy athletic equipment,
safety is a primary consideration.
9. I take proper precautions to
minimize the risk of injury while
engaging in physical activities.
10. I know and follow safety rules for
the activities in which I participate. Using Visuals. You know that being active is
important to your physical health, but do you
realize how it affects your mental/emotional and
social health? Give two examples of how the
physical activity pictured here helps these teens
keep their health triangles in balance. For instant feedback on your health
status, go to Chapter 4 Health
Inventory at health.glencoe.com. 73 Physical Activity and Your Health
metabolism YOU’LL LEARN TO
• Understand the importance of regular physical activity for enhancing
and maintaining personal health throughout the life span.
• Examine the effects of regular physical activity on body systems.
• Analyze the relationship between regular physical activity and
• Discover ways to incorporate physical activity into daily life. On a sheet of paper, make a list of the physical activities in which you
participate on a regular basis. Then add to your list three others you would like to try.
Briefly describe why each of these activities appeals to you. W
Tasks such as vacuuming,
raking leaves, or washing
the car can help you fit
more physical activity into
your life. What physical
activities do you include
in your daily routine? 74 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life hat kinds of physical activities do you enjoy? Do you like to
play basketball? Maybe you prefer skiing, riding mountain
bikes, or playing volleyball. Whatever your preference, regular
physical activity enhances your health. What Is Physical Activity? P hysical activity is any form of movement that causes your
body to use energy. It may be purposeful, such as when you
exercise or play sports. It may also occur as part of your regular
routine—for example, when you wash the car or
take the dog for a walk. Many forms of physical
activity can improve your level of physical
fitness, the ability to carry out daily
tasks easily and have enough reserve
energy to respond to unexpected demands.
Maintaining a high level of physical
fitness gives you a sense of total
well-being and is an important
lifelong health goal. What Are the Benefits of
Physical Activity? P hysical activity provides health benefits that last a lifetime. It
helps strengthen not only the physical but also the mental/
emotional and social sides of your health triangle. Benefits to Physical Health
Physical activity makes your body stronger, increases your
energy, and improves your posture. It can reduce chronic fatigue
and stiffness and can improve motor responses. It strengthens your
muscles and bones and helps reduce the risk of many serious diseases.
Regular physical activity also contributes to the functioning
of many body systems, including the following:
䊳 Cardiovascular System. Regular physical activity strengthens
the heart muscle, allowing it to pump blood more efficiently. 䊳 Respiratory System. When you engage in regular physical
activity, your respiratory system begins to work more efficiently—
you can breathe larger amounts of air, and the muscles used in
respiration don’t tire as quickly. This helps you perform such
activities as running farther without getting out of breath. 䊳 Nervous System. By helping you respond more quickly to
stimuli, physical activity can improve your reaction time.
This is especially helpful when driving or cycling. Benefits to Mental/
Emotional Health cardiovascular and
respiratory systems To learn
more about the cardiovascular
and respiratory systems, see
Chapter 16, page 414.
nervous system For more
information on the nervous
system, see Chapter 15,
page 399. Participating in a community event such as the
one shown here is a good
way to be physically
active, to help others,
and to engage in positive
social interaction. Being physically active
has many positive effects
on your mental/emotional
health. It can help reduce
stress. Doing some stretching exercises before bed,
for example, can help you
relax tense muscles and
sleep better after a difficult
day at school. Physical
activity also allows you to
manage anger or frustration in a healthy way. By
stimulating the release of
certain chemicals that
affect the brain, physical
activity can improve your
Lesson 1 Physical Activity and Your Health 75 mood and decrease your risk of depression. Other ways that physical activity benefits your mental/emotional health include
䊳 helping you look and feel better, which can increase your
self-confidence. 䊳 contributing to a positive self-concept by giving you a sense
of pride and accomplishment in taking care of yourself. 䊳 reducing mental fatigue by bringing more oxygen to the brain.
This improves your concentration, allowing you to think more
clearly and work more productively. 䊳 giving you a “can-do” spirit when faced with new challenges. Promote the Benefits of Physical Activity
In this activity you will think of ways that
different activities benefit all three parts of
the health triangle. Then you’ll choose an
activity and create a plan to try it out. What You’ll Need
• paper and pencil
markers or colored pencils What You’ll Do
1. Make a four-column chart on a sheet
of paper. Label the columns “Activity,”
“Physical,” “Mental/Emotional,” and
2. Work in a group of three. Take turns
identifying and recording a physical
activity that you enjoy. Then work 76 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life together to think of a physical, mental/
emotional, and social benefit of each
activity listed. Record these in the
3. Choose one of the activities on your
chart. Using markers or colored
pencils, create an ad that illustrates
the physical, mental/emotional, and
social benefits of that activity. Present
your finished ad to the class. Apply and Conclude
Based on class presentations, choose an
activity that you’re interested in but have
never tried. Write a plan to try the activity
to see if you like it. Benefits to Social Health
Are you a member of a recreational or school team? Do you swim
laps at a neighborhood pool? Do you like hiking or exploring trails
in your community? If so, you have probably met—and possibly
formed friendships with—others who share your interests.
Participating in a fitness regimen with friends can be fun and may
motivate you to stick with your fitness program; in turn, you can
help motivate your friends. Physical activity can also benefit social
䊳 building self-confidence, which helps you cope better in social
situations, such as when you meet new people. 䊳 giving you the opportunity to interact and cooperate with others. 䊳 helping you manage stress, which can enhance your
relationships with others. Responsibility. When you participate in regular physical activity, you
take responsibility for your health.
By taking care of yourself, you are
saying that you are worth investing
in. Be positive about the benefits
these activities bring you, and don’t
forget to compliment yourself: “I like
how I feel, and I like how I look!”
Write three other positive statements that reflect the benefits
you receive from regular physical
activity. Risks of Physical Inactivity A ccording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), some teens do not make physical activity a part of
their lives. The CDC’s findings, compiled in its CDC Fact Book
2000/2001, include these troubling facts about the level of physical
activity among U.S. high school students.
䊳 More than one in three teens (35 percent) do not participate
regularly in vigorous physical activity (that is, for at least 20
minutes three times a week). 䊳 Regular participation in vigorous physical activity declines
significantly during the teen years, from 73 percent of ninth
graders to 61 percent of twelfth graders. 䊳 Only 29 percent of teens attend a daily physical education
class—a serious decline from 42 percent in 1991. Clearly, many teens have a sedentary lifestyle, or a way of life
that involves little physical activity. They may spend much of their
time watching TV, playing video games, or working on the computer rather than being physically active. The negative effects of a
sedentary lifestyle may include
䊳 unhealthful weight gain, which is linked to several potentially
life-threatening conditions, including cardiovascular disease,
type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Cardiovascular disease is the leading
cause of death among Americans. Diabetes is a serious disorder
that prevents the body from converting food into energy. diabetes For more information on reducing your risk of
developing diabetes, see Chapter
26, page 691. Lesson 1 Physical Activity and Your Health 77 The number of obese
adult Americans doubled
between 1980 and 1999.
During the same period,
the number of overweight
teens tripled. In children and
teens, these weight increases
correspond to higher occurrences of asthma and type 2
diabetes. Eating a wellbalanced diet and increasing
the amount of physical
activity can help reverse
these trends. 䊳 an increased risk of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by a
decrease in bone density, producing porous and fragile bones. Porous
and fragile bones fracture more easily than healthy bones. 䊳 a reduced ability to manage stress. 䊳 decreased opportunities to meet and form friendships with
active people who value and live a healthy lifestyle. You can lower your risk of these and many other health problems
by including more physical activity in your daily life. For example,
when you go shopping, walk to the store or, if you have to drive,
park farther away from the entrance. Figure 4.1 suggests other
healthful alternatives to sedentary activities. A PPROACHES TO E VERYDAY A CTIVITIES Instead of . . . Try . . . • Taking an elevator or escalator
• Playing video or computer
• Getting a ride to a friend’s
• Using a shopping cart
• Watching TV or taking a nap
• Taking the car through a car
wash • Taking the stairs
• Playing soccer, basketball, or
• Walking, skating, or riding your
• Carrying groceries to the car
• Gardening or mowing the lawn
• Washing the car yourself Physical Activity and Weight Control T he CDC reports that more than one-half of American
adults and 14 percent of teens are overweight. This situation
can be traced to a sedentary lifestyle and overeating. To stay within
a weight range that is healthy for you, it’s important to develop
good eating habits and be physically active on a regular basis.
Understanding how the food you eat gets converted into energy
can help you maintain a healthy weight. Metabolism is the process
by which your body gets energy from food. Food’s energy value is measured in units of heat called calories. Your body needs a sufficient
number of calories each day to function properly. Additional calories must be burned through physical activity or they will be stored
in the body as fat. When you are physically active, your metabolic
rate rises and your body burns more calories than when it is at rest.
The number of calories burned depends in part on the nature of the 78 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life activity. When you stop being active, your metabolic rate slowly
returns to normal. For several hours afterward, however, you continue to burn more calories than you did before you began the
activity. Hiking is a physical
activity that you can enjoy
throughout your life. Name
two safety considerations
to keep in mind while
hiking. Fitting Physical Activity into
Your Life H ealth professionals recommend that teens incorporate 60 minutes of moderate physical activity
into their daily lives. This may sound difficult, but it
doesn’t have to be. Any activities that get you moving
count toward your daily total. For example, walk or
bike to school instead of getting a ride. Suggest to
your family that you go for a hike or a swim on the
weekend. Organize a basketball game with friends. Be
sure to include some activities that you can participate in throughout your life. Hiking, swimming,
golfing, biking, racquetball, tennis, and bowling are
just a few examples of lifelong activities. Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary
1. What is the difference between physical activity
and physical fitness?
2. Examine and briefly describe the effects of regular
physical activity on three body systems.
3. Analyze the relationship between regular physical
activity and disease prevention. Thinking Critically Applying Health Skills
Advocacy. Design a pamphlet with eyecatching headlines and graphics to educate
younger students about the importance of
physical activity. Your pamphlet should
encourage and guide them to determine
and then participate in the types of
physical activity best suited to their
interests and abilities. 4. Analyzing. Explain why watching television and
walking affect metabolism differently.
5. Synthesizing. Why does it take longer to get the
maximum health benefit from a leisurely walk than
from swimming laps? WORD PROCESSING Word processing
can give your pamphlet a professional look. See
health.glencoe.com for tips on how to get the most
from your word-processing program.
Lesson 1 Physical Activity and Your Health 79 Fitness and You
anaerobic exercise YOU’LL LEARN TO
• Identify and describe the five areas of health-related fitness.
• Examine the relationship among body composition, diet,
• Understand how to improve each of the five areas of
• Examine the effects of fitness on body systems. What does it mean to be physically fit? Write “Physical Fitness” at
the top of a sheet of paper. Then write all the ways you can think of to describe a
person’s level of physical fitness. D o you have trouble running a mile even though you
work out three times a week? Does your best friend
excel at track but have a hard time doing push-ups? As you
can see from these examples, every person’s level of physical
fitness is different. Elements of Fitness T o have total fitness, you need to take into account the
five areas of health-related fitness. These are the areas
that affect your overall health and well-being.
These teens are improving
their fitness levels. Explain
how this activity improves
endurance. 80 Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Life 䊳 Cardiorespiratory endurance—the ability of the heart, lungs,
and blood vessels to utilize and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s
tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity. 䊳 Muscular strength—the amount of force a muscle can exert. 䊳 Muscular endurance—the ability of the muscles to perform
physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued. 䊳 Flexibility—the ability to move a body part through a full range
of motion. 䊳 Body composition—the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue,
including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as
ligaments, cartilage, and tendons. As you do the step test,
your heart rate increases.
Explain why physical
activity causes your heart
to beat faster. Various activities and tests can help you evaluate each area of fitness. When you know your strengths and weaknesses, you can take
steps to improve your physical fitness through exercise. Exercise
is purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive
and that improves or maintains personal fitness. Measuring Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United
States. Keeping your cardiovascular system healthy is the most
effective way of reducing your risk of developing this life-threatening
disease. Cardiovascular health depends on maintaining good cardiorespiratory endurance. Can you run a mile without stopping or
hike for most of the day without getting tired? If so, you have good
CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE—STEP TEST
The three-minute step test can be used to measure your cardiorespiratory endurance. This test enables you to determine the rate
at which your heart beats following a period of physical activity.
1. Use a sturdy bench about 12 inches high. Fully extending each
leg as you step, step up with your right foot and then with
your left. Then step down with your right foot first.
2. Repeat at the rate of 24 steps per minute for three minutes.
3. Take your pulse. To do this, find a pulse point on your wrist
using the first two fingers of your other hand. Do not use the
thumb, which has its own pulse. If you have trouble finding the
pulse in your wrist, try finding the pulse point in your neck
just below your jaw. Count the number of beats you feel for
one minute. STEP TEST SCORING CHART 4. Find your pulse rate on the chart to evaluate your
cardiorespiratory endurance. Beats/
Minute Rating Measuring Muscular Strength and Endurance 85–95 Excellent You need muscular strength for activities that involve lifting,
pushing, or jumping and muscular endurance to perform such
activities repeatedly. Having good muscular strength and endurance gives you the necessary power to carry out your daily tasks
without becoming fatigued. People with good muscular strength
and endurance often have better posture and fewer back problems. 96–105 Good 106–125 Fair 126 or more Needs
Improvement Lesson 2 Fitness and You 81 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE—CURL-UPS
abdominal strength. How
might abdominal strength
improve your posture? The body has different muscle groups, so there are different ways
to measure muscular strength and endurance. Curl-ups often are
used to measure abdominal strength.
1. Lie on your back with your knees bent at about a 45-degree
angle and your feet slightly apart. Position your arms at
your sides. CURL-UPS HEALTHY RANGE
13 Female 21 or more 18 or more 14+ 24 or more 18 or more 2. With your heels flat on the floor, curl your shoulders slowly
off the ground, moving your arms forward toward your feet
as you rise.
3. Slowly return to the original position. Do one curl-up every
three seconds; continue until you can’t do any more at the
4. Find your score on the chart to rate your abdominal strength.
UPPER BODY STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE—ARM HANG
The arm hang is one test that is used to measure upper body
strength and endurance. For this test, work with two other people.
1. Grasp the horizontal bar with your palms facing away from you. The arm hang is used
to measure upper body
strength and endurance.
What are the benefits of
having good upper body
strength and endurance? 2. Raise your body so that your chin is above the bar and your
elbows are flexed to hold your chest near the bar. One person
should act as a spotter to make sure that you are not swinging
as you hang from the bar.
3. Hold the position described in Step 2 for as long as possible.
The third person will time yo...
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