WHAP Chap. 3 Outline.docx - Chapter 3 Classical...

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Chapter 3: Classical Civilization – IndiaIntroductionDistinctiveness (with China)oReligion and social structure focusoScientific tradition and tenor of economy and familySimilaritiesoAgricultural societyoMany peasant farmers that were self-sufficient, clustering to villagesoPatriarchal families with women much inferioroCreated cities and trade aided economy and learningThe Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative PeriodOpen to influences from Middle East and Mediterranean worldsoPersians brought new artistic and political conceptsoAlexander the Great– Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior tohis death in 323 B.C.E.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian culturesIndian contacts with Hellenistic cultureIndia is separated from east Asia by Himalayas– Mountain region marking the northern border of the Indian subcontinent; site of the Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republicsSome northwest mountain passes connected to Middle EastIndia is more diverse because of difficult political unity; different economy, races, and languagesoIndus and Ganges Rivers (agriculture)oMountainous regions north (herding)oSouthern coastal rim (trading and seafaring)India is semitropical in climateoMonsoon– Seasonal winds crossing Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia; during summer bring rainsoFarmers had to be prepared to have unexpected famines each yearIndia went through a formative period called the Vedic and Epic AgesAryans – Indo-European nomadic pastoralists originally from central Asia who replaced Harappa civilization; militarized societyMigrants invaded subcontinentCame to terms with agricultureSpread to Ganges, using iron tools to clear vegetationLanguage in Vedic AgesoSanskrit– the sacred and classical Indian languageoVedas– Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6thcentury B.C.E.oVedameans “knowledge” where Vedic ages get nameLanguage in Epic AgesoMahabharata– Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries B.C.E.; previously handed down in oral formoRamayana– One of the great epic tales from classical India; traces adventures of King Rama and his wife, SitaoUpanishads– Later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authorityTight village organizationsoChiefs organized defenses and property among familiesoPatriarchal control in Family and emphasis on extended familyEstablished caste system between Aryan conquerors and indigenous peoples
oVarnas– Clusters of caste groups in Aryan society; four social castes – Brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, and peasants; beneath four Aryan castes was group of socially untouchable DasasKshatriyas (mouth) – warrior/governing classBrahmans (arms) – priests (later became highest; religious importance)Vaisyas (thighs) – traders/farmers

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