Sociology 457 - Sociology 457 Nationalism Monday Outline...

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Sociology 457 Nationalism Monday, January 14, 2008 Outline: Leftovers from last time: 3 tenants modern, historical contingent, socially constructed Nationalism: Hobsbawm and Gellner: Nationalism is a political principle that maintains that the political and cultural units should be congruent, that they should match Following that definition, what are the possible ways in which the cultural and political units are mismatch and therefore “need” to be corrected, following the nationalist political principle Hobsbawm and Gellner claim that it is not nations that make nationalism, but the other way around: Nationalism makes nations. They create nations that did not exist before by creating a state Intro: Situating Anthony D. Smith’s work Argues against modernity of nations, although he argues for social construction, already existing in ethnies, student of Gellner, Jewish Ethnic Continuationist – evolve and are not invented, continue to be meaningful and relevant, nations originate from Ethnie Interested in seeing continuity between pre-national and national times, nation building is a slow process, arguing for the very causes of nationalism Definitions: Ethnie (lateral, vertical) – core communities on which nations were built: Community with a collective name, a common myth of descent, a distinctive shared culture, a sense of solidarity, and an association with a specific territory. Such communities became the basis for the formation of modern territorialized nations Lateral (aristocratic) – sense of belonging to the group is territorially wide, but socially narrow Class based across different ethnic groups and across different Socially limited, nothing to do with what we now understand as ethnie Vertical (demotic) – more compact geographical boundaries, more socially diffused culture, i.e. spreads across social classes Aristocracy, Bourgeoisie, Peasantry begin to show common features Ex. Jewish, Armenians, Greeks Greater degree of popular mobilization and fervor Nation: named community of history and culture, possessing a unified territory, economy, mass education system and common legal rights Smith = Ethnie + Modern attributes Ethnie + State Ethnies vs. Nations
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Collective Name B Common Myth of descent E Shared history B Distinctive shared culture: B Sense of solidarity: E Association with a territory: E Unified economy Unified mass education Common legal rights Two Roads to Nationalism - In order to create a nation a lateral ethnie has to change and become a vertical ethnie Lateral Nationalism (top-down) – small minority that tries to diffuse culture, example: France, bureaucratic :: Ethnic narrowing and social deepening of the idea of “nation” and who is a member—education of the masses is key The State is often the main agent of nationalization; has the resources and the means Bureaucratic, fiscal, or violent incorporation French or Polish model
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