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Notes for Educational Psychology

Notes for Educational Psychology - Notes for Educational...

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Notes for Educational Psychology Reading 5: Snow, Burns and Griffin Main Points: Adequate progress in learning to read English is contingent on some factors Having a working understanding of how sounds are represented alphabetically Sufficient practice in reading to achieve fluency with different kinds of text Sufficient background knowledge and vocabulary to render written texts meaningful and interesting Control over procedures for monitoring comprehension and repairing misunderstandings Continued interest and motivation to read for a variety of purposes Recommendations/Findings: Good instruction transcends children’s individual proclivity to vulnerability for failure Special focus on the primary grades Strong Professional development for instructors Instruction on phonics, fluency and comprehension; and the relatedness of all these Reading 6: Learning Science; Mayer Main Points: According to the conceptual-change approach to science education, science learning involves helping learners change their existing conceptions rather than solely add new information to their memories 4 cognitive processes Recognizing that your current conception is inadequate to explain your observations Inventing a new conception that better fits the observed data Applying you conception to solve a new scientific problem Developing expertise in scientific reasoning Conclusions A technique for helping students recognize anomalies is the predict- observe-explain method in which students predict the outcome of a simple experiment, observe that the outcome conflicts with their prediction, and then try to explain the discrepancy. Science instruction should help students build a progression of increasingly more powerful explanations of various natural phenomenons.
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The acquisition of scientific knowledge includes not only adding information to memory but also reorganizing knowledge in coherent and useful ways. Reading 7: High Stakes Testing; Paris and McEvoy Main Points: When coupled with other research that illuminates the effects of high stakes testing on teachers and parents, it becomes clear that there ARE hidden dangers that will have profound, cumulative, negative effects on American education The Trojan Horse analogy: testing has been wheeled into schools with great fanfare promising harder working students and higher achieving teachers
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