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Psychology_Test_1

Psychology_Test_1 - CHAPTER 1 What is Psychology The...

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CHAPTER 1 What is Psychology? The science of mental processes and behavior. A Brief History of Psychology First Laboratory – 1879 o Wilhelm Wundt - Leipzig, Germany Founder of psychology as a discipline, Focused on conscious experience and its building blocks. Trained many early psychologists. Structuralism o Examine the structure of the mind and the organization of basic elements of sensations, feelings, and images o Wundt’s student Titchner – introspection Carefully observing one’s own conscious psychological reactions. (example of apple: what you first think of about the apple may be different than what someone else thinks. Functionalism o Mental associations allow us to benefit from previous experience o William James (first American psychologist) Gestalt Psychology o Objects are well-organized structures, whole objects instead of separate, isolated parts (Look at the whole apple, not just one aspect) o Max Wertheimer Quick comparison: o A square- what is it? o Structuralists would see it as four separate lines. o A Gestaltilst would focus on the whole, and see it as a square. Psychoanalytic approach or Psychodynamics o How thoughts and feelings affect behavior o Sigmund Freud – Austrian neurologist who focused on sexuality and unconscious processes. He founded psychoanalysis, focused on unconscious thoughts in determining behavior. Behaviorism o Emphasized the study of observable behavior only (used lab rats a lot)! o John Watson o B.F. Skinner Humanistic o Assumes that people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity. (Not necessarily a reaction to things, we can choose) 1
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o Reaction against the pessimism of Freud. Cognitive Revolution o Led to the emergence of Cognitive Psychology, the study of mental processes which attempts to characterize how information is stored and operated on internally. (Like what is going on inside a computer when it thinks) Modern Views Modern psychologists are eclectic – approach problems from multiple perspectives. Believe behaviors have multiple causes. An important emphasis on the brain! 2
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CHAPTER 2 Psychology as a Science Psychology as a Science Attempts to describe, predict, and explain thought and behavior. Uses scientific method. o Hypothesis – tentative and testable statement about the relationships between causes and consequences. o Design and conduct experiments to test hypothesis. Can have between subjects design (diff people for diff conditions) Can also have within subject design. o Analyze results and draw conclusions. o Develop a theory – an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon. o Report the results – public verifiability. o Apply the results. Data and Variables Data- careful observations or numeric measurements (example was reaction time) Variables- factor that can change o I.V. (independent variables)- factor that the experimenter manipulates (alcohol level) o D.V. (dependent variables)- what the researcher measures (reaction time) Example:
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