PSYC 380 final study guide - Psychology of Personality...

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Psychology of Personality Final Exam Study GuideChapter 12: Cognitive PerspectiveSchemasCognitive theorists are interested in how people organize, store, and retrieve memoriesof their experiencesWe learn to impose order from recurrences of similar qualities across repeated events,which is forming a schemaSchemas are mental organizations of informationScriptSchemas for episodic eventsResults if you experience enough episodes of a given type, a schema for that class ofepisodes starts to formScripts refer to well-defined sequences of behavior that tell us what to expect and whatto do in certain situations, such as going to weddingsSelf-SchemasSchematic representation of the selfLarger and more complex than other schemas because we spend more time noticingthings about ourselvesHas many emotional elementsSelf-ComplexityDifferent people's self-schemas can differ not only in content but also in complexitySome people keep different self-aspects different from each otherPossible selvesEntity vs. Incremental ViewsEntity:Abilities are unchangingThe goal of task performance is to prove the abilityFailure results in distress and desire to quitAttend to and remember information concerning consistencyIncremental views:Abilities can increase with experienceThe goal of task performance is to extendabilityFailure is seen as an opportunity to increase the abilityAttend to and remember information indicating a changeAttributionHelps to infer the cause of an event, and decide whether it was intentional or accidentalDual-process theoryConscious processing:Effortful reasoning and programs of instructionImplements rules and carriers out logical steps of inference and actionSuch as a delayed gratificationIntuitive processing:Intuitive problem solving, automated processes
Implicit knowledge, such as insight and intuitionsProblems in BehaviorAutomatic thoughtsThoughts that you experience when you felt the moodCognitive triadNegative schemas about the self, the world, and the futureDeficits in cognitive processingIdentify automatic self-defeating thoughts and replace with new self-talkCognitive TherapyAbandon faulty schemas and build new onesReplace automatic thoughts with self-talkCognitive restructuringChallenge automatic thoughts with evidenceReality testingCh. 13: Self-Regulation PerspectiveTheory of Reasoned ActionThis theory suggests it may be useful to measure individual differences in self-regulatoryprocessesPrivate self-consciousness “self-focus” - tendency to think about your feelings,motives, and actions.People high in self-consciousness are careful and thorough self regulatorsPeople lower in self-consciousness are more random and less guided in theirbehaviorIf you are mindful of your own thoughts, emotions, and actions that will affectyour behaviors and personalityIntentions:Attitude

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Term
Spring
Professor
Blair
Tags
Psychology, Cognitive Perspective, The Unconscious,

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