PARTS OF SPEECH.docx - week 1 parts of speech NOUN A noun...

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week 1- parts of speech NOUN A noun is a word that denotes a person, place, or thing. In a sentence, nouns answer the questions who and what. PRONOUN A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence. Example: She decided to go to a movie. ARTICLES Articles include a, an, and the. They precede a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence. Example 1: They wanted a house with a big porch. ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun. Adjectives may precede nouns, or they may appear after a form of the reflexive verb to be (am, are, is, was, etc.). Example 1: We live in the red brick house. Example 2: She is tall for her age. VERBS A verb is a word that denotes action, or a state of being, in a sentence. Example 1: Beth rides the bus every day. Example 2: Paul was an avid reader. ADVERBS Just as adjectives modify nouns, adverbs modify, or further describe, verbs. Adverbs may also modify adjectives. (Many, though not all, adverbs end in -ly.)
Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that joins two independent clauses, or sentences, together. Example 1: Ellen wanted to take a drive into the city, but the cost of gasoline was too high. Example 2: Richard planned to study abroad in Japan, so he decided to learn the language. Prepositions Prepositions work in combination with a noun or pronoun to create phrases that modify verbs, nouns/pronouns, or adjectives. Prepositional phrases convey a spatial, temporal, or directional meaning. Example 1: Ivy climbed up the brick wall of the house. WEEK 2 - Introduction to Verb Tenses Only two tenses are conveyed through the verb alone: present (“sing") and past (“sang"). Most English tenses, as many as thirty of them, are marked by other words called auxiliaries. Understanding the six basic tenses allows writers to re-create much of the reality of time in their writing. Present Perfect The present perfect consists of a past participle (the third principal part) with "has" or "have." It designates action which began in the past but which continues into the present or the effect of which still continues. Present Perfect Infinitives Infinitives also have perfect tense forms. These occur when the infinitive is combined with the word “have.” Sometimes, problems arise when infinitives are used with verbs of the future, such as “hope,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” or “want.” 2
Past Perfect The past perfect tense designates action in the past just as simple past does, but the past perfect’s action has been completed before another action. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is used for an action that will be completed at a specific time in the future.

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