week 1- parts of speech NOUN A noun is a word that denotes a person, place, or thing. In a sentence, nounsanswer the questions who and what.PRONOUNA pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence.Example: She decided to go to a movie.ARTICLESArticles include a, an, and the. They precede a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence.Example 1: They wanted a house with a big porch.ADJECTIVESAn adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun. Adjectives may precede nouns, or they may appear after a form of the reflexive verb to be (am, are, is, was, etc.).Example 1: We live in the red brick house.Example 2: She is tall for her age.VERBSA verb is a word that denotes action, or a state of being, in a sentence.Example 1: Beth rides the bus every day.Example 2: Paul was an avid reader.ADVERBSJust as adjectives modify nouns, adverbs modify, or further describe, verbs. Adverbs may also modify adjectives. (Many, though not all, adverbs end in -ly.)
ConjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins two independent clauses, or sentences, together.Example 1: Ellen wanted to take a drive into the city, but the cost of gasoline was too high.Example 2: Richard planned to study abroad in Japan, so he decided to learn the language.PrepositionsPrepositions work in combination with a noun or pronoun to create phrases that modify verbs, nouns/pronouns, or adjectives. Prepositional phrases convey a spatial, temporal, or directional meaning.Example 1: Ivy climbed up the brick wall of the house.WEEK 2 - Introduction to Verb TensesOnly two tenses are conveyed through the verb alone: present (“sing") and past (“sang"). Most English tenses, as many as thirty of them, are marked by other words called auxiliaries. Understanding the six basic tenses allows writers to re-create much of the reality of time in their writing.Present PerfectThe present perfect consists of a past participle (the third principal part) with"has" or "have." It designates action which began in the past but which continues into the present or the effect of which still continues.Present Perfect InfinitivesInfinitives also have perfect tense forms. These occur when the infinitive is combined with the word “have.” Sometimes, problems arise when infinitivesare used with verbs of the future, such as “hope,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” or “want.”2
Past PerfectThe past perfect tense designates action in the past just as simple past does, but the past perfect’s action has been completed before another action.Future PerfectThe future perfect tense is used for an action that will be completed at a specific time in the future.