MidTerm Study Guide

MidTerm Study Guide - Human Evolution Mid-Term Study Guide...

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Human Evolution Mid-Term Study Guide Terms and Concepts 1) Physical Anthropology: The Study of living, historic, prehistoric and fossil humans from a biological and evolutionary perspective. This includes analysis of behavior in a bicultural continuum. a. Modern physical anthropology began in 1951 with Sherwood Washburn who introduced evolution into physical anthropology 2) Paleoanthropology: Study of fossil humans, it incorporates physical anthropology and archeology, as well as other disciplines such as geology, paleoclimatology, etc. It mandates the use of multiple lines of evidence. 3) Science: A mode of thinking where knowledge is gained through observation, replication and experimentation using a particular research method. a. Hypothesis are generated and tested, they must be capable of being falsified. b. The scientific method organizes scientific thought, based on a hypothesis. 4) Geology: Study of the earth a. James Hutton is the father of modern Geology and Uniformitarianism b. Argued that the earth was extraordinarily old and ancient. c. Large chronology of earth’s history 5) Natural Selection: First articulated by Charles Darwin, but independently discovered by Alfred Russell Wallace, it refers to genetic change in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals. a. Natural Selection is based on variation. b. Observable traits are variable, including behavior. c. Offspring inherit traits from their parents.
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d. Example: Finches developing specialized beaks for a specific type of nut. 6) Artificial Selection: When humans manipulate mortality and reproduction to create favored varieties of breeds from pre-existing variation in traits. It shows that species can change or be transformed 7) Adaptation: It occurs when an organism is fit with respect to its environment, i.e. it can survive and reproduce in its environment. It is caused by natural selection. Selection pressures vary constantly and optimal fitness cannot exist, there is no guarantee that a currently fit organism will not stay that way for ever. 8) DNA: The double stranded molecule that contains genetic code, the main component of chromosomes. Discovered in 1953 by Watson and Crick. It can replicated a. Adenine (A) - Thymine (T) b. Guanine (G) – Cytosine (C) c. Mitochondrial DNA only comes from your mother 9) Chromosome: Structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei. Humans have 46 chromosomes. a. Diploid Cells: 46 Chromosomes b. Haploid Cells: 23 Chromosomes 10) Gene: A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of Amino acids in an entire protein. Made up of hundreds or thousands of DNA bases organized into coding and non-coding segments. They make protein!
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11) Cell: Basic unit of life, contains DNA 12) Somatic Cell: All the Cells in the body except those involved with reproduction (Sperm and Egg) 13) Autosomes: All chromosomes except sex chromosomes (X,Y) 14) Sex Chromosomes: X and Y chromosomes, they are not homologous. The Y chr.
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MidTerm Study Guide - Human Evolution Mid-Term Study Guide...

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