2-20 lecture - Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert...

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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 CogLab #2 Encoding Specificity Due the Friday after Spring Break (March  7 th  by 5:00pm) Information posted on ctools in the resources  folder
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Chapter 8: Representation and  Organization of Knowledge in Memory:  Concepts, Categories, Networks and  Schemas  
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Organization of Declarative Knowledge Declarative Knowledge: Knowledge of facts  that can be stated Semantic : Stores general world knowledge Episodic : Stores personally experienced events  or episodes
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Overview Concept Unit of symbolic knowledge (e.g., cats, dogs, birds) Category Rules used to organize concepts (e.g., cats, dogs, and birds are all animals)
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Different Types of Categories Natural Categories Occur naturally (e.g. plants, trees, cats) Artifact Categories Created by humans (e.g., hammers, computers) Ad Hoc Categories Created individually to suit a need (things you need to  be happy, things you do to please parents) 
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Categorization Allows us to make inferences about members of a category  based on what we know about the category.   E.g., Touring bikes So categorization allows us to organize existing  information as well as the inferences that go beyond it. 
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Categorization by Pigeons Results:   81% accurate with old exemplars 64% accurate with new exemplars (25% is chance) Cat Flower Car Chair Wasserman et al. 1987
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Categorization by Conceptual Knowledge Gelman & Markman 1983
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 How Do We Define Categories?   Classical View Probabilistic (Modern) View
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Classical View Involves breaking a concept into a set of defining  features.  A defining feature is a necessary attribute. E.g., What are the defining features of a widow?  Problem with theory? Not always easy to come up with defining features What is the defining feature of a monster? A wedding? A  family?
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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 8 Probabilistic View Characteristic  properties Something belongs to a category if it is  similar  to members  of that category Some members have more characteristic properties than  others.
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2-20 lecture - Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert...

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