ssp_4 - 1 Electronegativity Empirical parameter introduced...

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1-15 1 Electronegativity Empirical parameter introduced by Pauling: X = 0.184 (E Ioniz. - E Aff. ) E Ioniz. , E Aff. in eV E Aff. : energy for A + e - A - (E Aff. < 0 !) X # 0 ionic contribution to binding Table 1.2. Electronegativity X of main group elements in the periodic table. X increases from left to right because increasing core charge leads to stronger binding of electrons. X decreases from top to bottom because of increasing screening of the outer valence electrons by inner core electrons. H 2.1 Li 1.0 Be 1.5 B 2.0 C 2.5 N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Na 0.9 Mg 1.2 Al 1.5 Si 1.8 P 2.1 S 2.5 Cl 3.0 K 0.8 Ca 1.0 Sc 1.3 Ge 1.8 As 2.0 Se 2.4 Br 2.8 Rb 0.8 Sr 1.0 Y 1.3 Sn 1.8 Sb 1.9 Te 2.1 J 2.5
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1-16 Properties of ionic crystals High binding energy: 6, . .., 11 eV high melting point hard brittle * Undirected bonds close packing Electrons bound tightly “no“ electronic conductivity But ionic conductivity via defects at high temperatures * Repulsion of ions with the same charge easily causes fracture of ionic crystals.
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1-17 Packing principles Close packing Contacts of cations with anions
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ssp_4 - 1 Electronegativity Empirical parameter introduced...

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