Lecture%205 - Biology 301 Biology Infectious Disease...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 301 Biology Infectious Disease & Society Antibiotics Antibiotics What “In In are antibiotics? common usage, an antibiotic is a substance or compound (also called chemotherapeutic agent) that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics belong to the group of antimicrobial compounds, i.e., those for treating infections caused by microorganisms, including viruses, fungi, and protozoa.” protozoa.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic Antibiotics “a substance produced by or a semisynthetic substance derived from a synthetic microorganism and able in dilute solution to inhibit or kill another microorganism” http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/antibiotics http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/antibiotics Antibiotics “Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. Originally, an antibiotic was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another. Synthetic antibiotics, usually chemically related to natural antibiotics, have since been produced that accomplish comparable tasks.” accomplish http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8121 Antibiotics “a llow-molecular-weight compound that ow-molecular-weight can inhibit growth of or kill microorganisms” (Salyers 2002) microorganisms” “a chemical that kills bacteria or inhibits chemical their growth” (Campbell 1999) their Antibiotics Antibiotics “In In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming observed that colonies of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus could be destroyed by the mold Penicillium notatum, proving that there was an antibacterial agent there, in principle. This principle later lead to medicines that could kill certain types of disease-causing bacteria inside the body.” the http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/Penicillin.htm Antibiotics How do antibiotics work? How Brief Brief Overview of Antibiotics (Reference chart Nuflor®) Nuflor Gallery [no narration ] Animation Animation Penicillin mode of action Antibiotics Example of manufacturer’s guidelines for phys Zithroamax fact sheet) fact sheet Bayer-Cipro Source: Commercial insight: antibacterials (Datamonitor/IMS Health, London, December 2006). http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v24/n12/full/nbt1206-1512.html Antibiotics What What is antibiotic resistance, and what threats does it pose to humans? threats Resistance Antibiotic What What are the major sources of antibiotic resistance? resistance? Vaccines Vaccines What are Vaccines? “A vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves vaccine immunity to a particular disease. immunity Vaccines can be prophylactic (e.g. to prevent or ameliorate the effects Vaccines of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine). investigated; The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of the term The cow pox (Latin variolæ vaccinæ, adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us, from vacca cow), which, when administered to humans, provided them protection against smallpox.” them http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine Vaccines Vaccines “a preparation of killed microorganisms, preparation living attenuated organisms, or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a particular disease” particular http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/vaccines Vaccines Vaccines History of Vaccines “The early vaccines were inspired by the concept of variolation The variolation originating in China, in which a person is deliberately infected with a weak form of smallpox as a form of inoculation. Jenner observed inoculation Jenner that milkmaids who had contact with cowpox did not get smallpox. milkmaids He discovered that deliberate vaccination with cowpox (which has very mild effect in humans) would prevent smallpox (which is often fatal). Jenner's work was continued by Louis Pasteur and others in Louis the 19th century. Since vaccination against smallpox was much safer than smallpox inoculation, the latter fell into disuse and was eventually banned in England in 1849. eventually The 19th and 20th centuries saw the introduction of several successful The vaccines against a number of infectious diseases. These included bacterial and viral diseases, but not (to date) any parasitic viral diseases.” diseases.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine Vaccines Vaccines General CDC Vaccine Animation Homepage on Vaccine Safety Vaccines Vaccines 1. 2. 3. 4. Types of Vaccines Killed organism- inoculating a person with the killed Killed form of an organism produces the appropriate immune response. (flu, plague, hepatitis A) response. Attenuated live organism- a weakened form of the Attenuated pathogen is cultivated and introduced to the subject. (Tuberculosis, measles, rubella) (Tuberculosis, Toxiods- adapted form of a toxin used by a pathogen is Toxiodsintroduced (cholera, diptheria) introduced Sub unit- a portion of the organism (cell wall protein, Sub envelope protein, etc.) will create the desired immune response. response. Vaccines Vaccines Novel DNA Ex. Vaccines Vaccines Malaria 4-Gene Vaxart Oral delivery mechanism Vaccine Overview animation McGraw-Hill Disease Disease “A condition of the living animal or plant body or condition of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by functioning distinguishing signs and symptoms”. distinguishing (http://aolsvc.merriam-webster.aol.com/dictionary/disease) “A disease is an abnormal condition of an disease organism that impairs bodily functions and impairs can be deadly. It is also defined as a way of the body harming itself in an abnormal way, associated with specific symptoms and signs”. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease) “An An infection that causes symptoms” (Salyers 2002) (Salyers Disease Disease Most people, when defining disease, Most focus on two key concepts: focus 1. 2. The impairment/destruction of normal body The function(s). function(s). The manifestation of signs and/or symptoms Discussion point: Asymptomatic Discussion Carriers Carriers Signs vs. Symptoms Signs Sign: Any objective evidence of disease. Gross blood in the stool is a sign of disease. It can be recognized by the patient, doctor, nurse, or others. patient, is, by its nature, subjective. Abdominal pain is a symptom. It is something only the patient can know. something (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5493) Symptom Disease: The evolution of assessment assessment The The impairment or destruction of normal body function. body you know what normal looks like, you’ll have a better chance of recognizing the abnormality” –Ray Yamrus, Head Athletic Trainer, George Mason University (commentary on graduate radiology course) graduate “If If Movie Discussion Questions / Group Activity Group Name Name 5 conditions of illness that tend to have a “negative” social connotation and why you believe that have that connotation. connotation. are 5 major sociological barriers to coordinated efforts (emergency response) against highly infectious diseases? What What ...
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