psyc_317_review_questions_final_exam_fall_09 2

psyc_317_review_questions_final_exam_fall_09 2 - Review...

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Review Questions PSYC 317-001, Spring 2009 1. What is meant by a linguistic universal? Describe two linguistic universals proposed by Hockett (1960/1966). Are these universals also characteristic of non-linguistic communication? Explain. Linguistic universals are features or characteristics that are common to all languages Semanticity- linguistic utterances, whether simple phrases or complete sentences, convey meaning by means of the symbols we use to form the utterance Total feedback- the human speaker has total auditory feedback for the transmitted message, simultaneous with the listener’s reception of the message. This feedback is used for moment-to-moment adjustments to the production of sound. No, these are not characteristics of non-linguistic communication, both use an verbal sounds as communications 2. Differentiate phrase structure and transformational grammar, according to Chomsky. Why is a sentence such as “The shooting of the hunters was horrible,” important to Chomsky? Phase structures grammar specify the word groupings and phrases that make up the whole utterance and the relationships among those constituents ( the patio resembles a junkyard, while transformational grammar handle the many specific surface forms that can express an underlying idea, they convert the deep structure into a surface structure, a sentence ready to be spoken The sentence “the shooting of the hunters was horrible is important to Chomsky because it should that surface structures could be ambiguous, and it showed that there must be something missing in the grammar otherwise it would not be ambiguous. 3. Describe both the strong and weak forms of the linguistic relativity hypothesis? What is the status of this hypothesis today? What did Eleanor (Heider) Rosch contribute to our understanding of the hypothesis? The strong form of the hypothesis is that language controls both thought and perception, the weak form is that language influences and shapes your thoughts. The weak form of the hypothesis is widely accepted today. Rosch &
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psyc_317_review_questions_final_exam_fall_09 2 - Review...

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