Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Study Guide Exam 2 PSYC 372 005,...

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Study Guide – Exam 2 PSYC 372 – 005, Fall 2009 Know the “key terms” that are included at the beginning of each lecture. These may be addressed as multiple choice questions on the exam, but may also be used in Fill-In-The-Blank type questions. In fact, the Fill-in-the-blank portion of the exam will only use these “key terms” Lecture 8 3 main divisions of memory. What is consolidation? o Short-term memory, long term memory and working memory o Consolidation- taking components from short term memory to create long term memories What brain area has been linked to working memory o The Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is linked to working memory What are some characteristics of cells in the hippocampus that make it a likely area for learning and memory formation? o The Granule cells of the dentate gyrus undergo Neurogenesis( the birth of new neurons, this is one the few places in the adult brain where new neurons are born) , Pyramidal neurons of the CA field are particularly susceptible to long-term potentiation What is the role of emotion in memory formation? o Emotion enhances consolidation What deficits in memory were seen in HM, and what deficits were not seen? Therefore, what aspects of memory is the hippocampus involved in and what is it not? o Deficits memory seen in HM was the storage of long-term memory, episodic memory, explicit memory, and spatial memory. o Deficits not seen was short-term and working memory, implicit memory, procedural memory What is the difference between ionotropic and metabotropic action of neurotransmitter receptors? o
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3 properties of LTP o Specificity( only the active synapses become strengthened), cooperativity(simultaneous stimulation at two or more synapses can produce LTP more strongly), and associativity( pairing a weak with a strong input can enhance later response to the weak input) Make sure you understand the concept and details of LTP, including: o What neurotransmitter and receptors are involved Glutamate and AMPA and NMDA o What is the order that these receptors are activated, how is the NMDA receptor blocked, and what can unblock it? Initially stimulates AMPA receptors only causing Na+ ions to flow to the post-synaptic cell and depolarizing it. The NMDA receptor channel is initially blocked by a Mg ion o How does it result in future increased activation of post-synaptic neuron When both receptor types are activated, the cell is more responsive to glutamate stimulation, thereby potentiating its future responses. What role does calcium play in LTP? What processes can it initiate? o Ca+ inflow, and the activation of CamKII, it can initiate the process of AMPA receptors become more responsive to Glutamate (more Glu binding sites). Dendrites insert more AMPA receptors. Dendrites insert more AMPA receptors.
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Final Exam Study Guide - Study Guide Exam 2 PSYC 372 005,...

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