Chapter 06MMGStudent

Chapter 06MMGStudent - Chapter 6 Merlock Gliniecki, Ph.D 1...

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Chapter 6 Merlock Gliniecki, Ph.D 1 German Psychologists of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries Introduction Competing approaches to new psychology All experimental- the difference was in what they studied Weber and Fechner- made précis measurements of sensation- psychophysics which influended wundt Ebbinghaus- memory Brentao, stumpf, kulpe- higher mental acts like a learning, problem solving, association Chapter Outline The development of psychophysics: the study of physical stimuli and the psychological reaction to them Ernst Weber ( 1795-1878) professor of anatomy and physiology at the University of Leipzig (like Wundt) Was the first person to complete research in psychophysics. There had been a lot of research on auditory and visual processes, so Weber set out to become the leading authority on two major contributions: o Mapping the relative sensitivity of various locations on the skin o Demonstrating a mathematical relationship between the psychological and the physical (Weber’s Law) Tactile Sensitivity He studied the relative sensitivity of various areas on the surface of the body using the two point threshold for any place on the skin- the point where perception changes from feeling one point to two. Weber’s Law He did experiments in which he had people make comparisons between two weights. o He had people perform two tasks. First, your hand is resting on a table and first one then another weighted cylinder is placed into your palm. Your task is to judge which cylinder is heavier. In the second task, the two cylinders are on the table and this time you lift each one before making the same judgment. o Weber found that he and other observers could make finer discriminations when they lifted the weights, which highlighted the importance of the muscle sense. o Weber’s Law: jnd/s = k, a stimulus a up in intensity, it takes progressively larger differences between stimulus A and Stimulus B 1
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Chapter 6 Merlock Gliniecki, Ph.D 2 o just noticeable difference or jnd. Point at which a person can distinguish between two different weights o He also discovered that it the jnd depended not on the absolute size of the difference between the weights but on the relationship between this jnd and the smaller of the two weights, called the standard stimulus or S. Weber’s Law was: jnd/S = k. As the standard stimulus became heavier, a greater difference between the weights was necessary before the difference was noticed. So observers would notice a difference between 30 and 33 grams but not between 60 and 63 grams. If the standard stimulus is 60 instead of 30, no difference can be detected until the second weight is at least 66 grams. Significance of Weber’s findings: 1. He was able to measure mental events 2. Showed that
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Chapter 06MMGStudent - Chapter 6 Merlock Gliniecki, Ph.D 1...

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