Lecture 20 - chain. Naming a Fatty Acid Naming methods of...

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OVERVIEW OF LIPIDS Broad definition of Lipids (1,000s of compounds) soluble in organic solvents (chloroform, ether) Note: includes fat soluble vitamins. In this section, we will focus on those lipids, which are important for energy production and membrane structure . 1. Fatty acid a. Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated b. Omega-3, Omega-6, Omega-9 c. Long chain, short chain d. Eicosanoid – fatty acid derivatives (100s of them) 2. Triglyceride a. glycerol backbone b. 3 fatty acids 3. Phospholipid A. Composition a. glycerol backbone b. 2 fatty acids c. polar head group B. Types a. vary polar head group b. glycophospholipids 4. Cholesterol a. cholesterol esters
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b. steroid hormones
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LIPID STRUCTURE Lecture 20 1. Fatty acids Structure: Hydrocarbon chain (4 to 24 carbons long) All are even carbon numbers (plants may have odd carbon numbers) Carboxyl end (hydrophilic) Methyl end (hydrophobic) Unsaturation (double bonds in cis or trans configuration) Cis double bond kinks (bends) the hydrocarbon chain. Trans double bond does not kink the hydrocarbon
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Unformatted text preview: chain. Naming a Fatty Acid Naming methods of double bonds. 1. delta ( ) system start counting at carboxyl end 2. omega ( ) system start counting at methyl end 3. n system start counting at methyl end *Carbons are added or removed from the carboxyl end. Thus the system will change with fatty acid metabolism but the and n systems will not. Common Fatty Acids 2. Triglyceride Structure glycerol backbone + 3 fatty acids *Overall structure is determined by the type of fatty acids. 3. Phospholipids Structure glycerol backbone + 2 fatty acids + 1 polar headgroup * Overall structure is determined by the type of fatty acids. Exception to the rule is Sphingomeylin. Structure sphingoid backbone + 1 fatty acid (usually saturated) Phosphatidylinositol 4. Cholesterol Structure 4 cyclic rings Cholesterol ester - Fatty acid added to hydroxyl group. Good Uses of Cholesterol...
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Lecture 20 - chain. Naming a Fatty Acid Naming methods of...

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