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Lecture 11 - Lecture 11 Enzyme Kinetics Metabolic pathways...

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Lecture 11 Enzyme Kinetics Metabolic pathways are regulated, primarily, by enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze individual reactions. Enzymes provide specificity because they must interact with at least 3 different parts of the substrate. A catalyst is a substance that helps a reaction proceed but is not changed. This is important because it allows the catalyst to catalyze another reaction. The metabolic pathways of nutrients have many steps (individual reactions) in them. However, only a select few reactions serve as rate limiting, normally proceed relatively slow, or regulatory steps. These steps are regulatory because the enzyme’s activity can be controlled by posttranslational events like phosphorylation or pretranslational by controlling the amount of the enzyme (protein synthesis). Enzymes are assisted by cofactors. Cofactors are molecules that assist in the transfer of chemical groups.
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