4+Neurochem+and+Physiol

4+Neurochem+and+Physiol - Neurochemistry and...

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1 Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology Neurochemistry Energy and metabolism Biosynthesis (proteomics, genomics) Neurotransmitter systems Neurophysiology Electrophysiology Cerebral Blood Flow Chemistry and Physiology are Related! What is a Neurotransmitter? Synthesized in the presynaptic neuron and found within the neuron Released from nerve terminals upon depolarization Act at receptor sites on postsynaptic membranes Produce excitation or inhibition Inactivated through reuptake or enzymatic degradation
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2 Neurotransmitter or Hormone? Neurotransmitters - act at sites close to release Hormones - act at sites distant from release (travel through circulation) Many substances function as both hormones and neurotransmitters Epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin, etc Neuronal Communication
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3 Neurotransmitter Receptors 2 major functions: Reuptake, signal transduction Reuptake/transporters Terminate neurotransmitter activity Serotonin (reuptake inhibitors: SSRI - “prozac”) Dopamine transporters Signal Transduction Postsynaptic Coupled to ion channels (ionotropic) or to effectors (metabotropic) - effectors are G-proteins or tyrosine kinase Neurotransmitter Storage and Release Neurotransmitter Presynaptic receptors (re-uptake) Postsynaptic receptors (transduction) Action potential
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4 Synapse Neurotransmitter Families 1: Small Molecules Acetylcholine Biogenic Amines Dopamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine) Histamine Amino Acids γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) Glycine Glutamate
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5 Neurotransmitter Families 2: Peptides Hypothalamic releasing hormones Thryotropin releasing hormone Gonadotropin releasing hormone Somatostatin Pituitary peptides Adrenocorticotropic hormone β -Endorphin Prolactin Thyrotropin Gastrointestinal peptides
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2010 for the course NEUROSCIEN Neuroscien taught by Professor Jagust during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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4+Neurochem+and+Physiol - Neurochemistry and...

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