Lecture+22+Depression - What is Depression? Changes in mood...

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What is Depression? Changes in mood and affect Mood - subjective experience Affect - observable changes Changes in behavior Characterized as Major and Minor Depression Depression can also be a feature of bipolar disorder (Manic-Depressive illness) Major Depression: Diagnostic Criteria Must have either depressed mood or diminished interest/loss of pleasure in most activities And 4 or more : Substantial weight loss or gain Change in sleep (too much or insomnia) Motor agitation or motor retardation Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt Difficult concentrating Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
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Major Depression - Continued Symptoms must be present for 2 weeks and be associated with distress and impairment of function Symptoms are not accounted for by a medical condition, substance abuse, or bereavement Often associated with cognitive impairment - concentration, speed of processing, executive function Can be associated with delusions and hallucinations (psychotic features) Epidemiology of Depression Increases with age Lifetime risk: 10% men, 20% women 1-4% over 65 Prevalence doubles after age 75 Risk factors: female gender, single status, stressful life events, lack of social support, lower SES
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Americans 65 are more likely to be: Native born (91% vs 89%) Widowed (32% vs 7%) Living alone (28% vs 10%) English-only speakers (87% vs 82%) Homeowners (78% vs 66%) Associations with Depression Increased cortisol A stress hormone Increased abdominal fat Decreased bone density Diabetes and hypertension Stroke
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Depression in the Elderly (Geriatric Depression) Often associated with medical illness Stroke, heart attack May be a specific feature of neurological disease Parkinson’s disease Stroke
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2010 for the course NEUROSCIEN Neuroscien taught by Professor Jagust during the Fall '09 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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Lecture+22+Depression - What is Depression? Changes in mood...

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