Lecture+25+Interventions - Life Expectancy World Avg = 67.2...

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1 Life Expectancy World Avg = 67.2 39.4 39.8 39.6 Swaziland 195 72.6 59.0 65.5 Russia 137 38 19 4 1 Rank 80.8 75.6 78.2 USA 81.9 77.1 79.5 Greece 84.2 79.0 81.7 Switzerland 86.1 79 82.6 Japan Female Male Average Country Types of Interventions to Maintain/Improve Aging Outcomes Increase Longevity Cognitive Strategy Training Cognitive “exercise” Physical exercise Drugs/medications
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2 Caloric Restriction/Intermittent Fasting Extends lifespan in animals from worms to mammals Multiple molecular mechanisms have been suggested: upregulation of neurotrophic factors lower glucose levels - less protein glycation reduced metabolic rates - lower reactive oxygen species increased insulin effectiveness sirtuins (SIR2 - silent information regulator2) inhibition of SIR2 shortens, increased gene dose extends lifespan in C elegans SIRT1 - mamalian homologue with actions on stress response, apoptosis, energy homeostasis Caloric Restriction (CR) in Primates Rhesus Macaques - average lifespan approx 27 years, max lifespan 40 years 30% caloric reduction Reduced body fat, greater muscle mass Increased survival, fewer age-related diseaes (cancer, diabetes, heart disase)
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3 Colman et al., Science 2009 Old Control (28 years) Age-matched, Caloric Restriction (CR) Calorically restricted animals have less brain atrophy A/B reduction in brain volume with age C/D Increased brain volume with CR E/F Interaction showing diet modifying effect of age
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4 CR in Humans Limited long term data from several groups: Caloric Restriction Society 1000-2000 kcal/day (normal 2000-4000 kcal/day) Okinawans Highest percentage of centenarians in the world Death rates from heart disease and cancer are 30-40% lower than the rest of Japan, much lower than USA Nutrient-dense, low calorie diet: vegetables, grains, fruits, seaweed, fish Second longest lived human Shigechiyo Izumi, died at 120 in 1986
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2010 for the course NEUROSCIEN Neuroscien taught by Professor Jagust during the Fall '09 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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Lecture+25+Interventions - Life Expectancy World Avg = 67.2...

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