Lecture 10 Social Cognition, Love, and Sex

Lecture 10 Social Cognition, Love, and Sex - Theory of Mind...

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Lecture #10: 6/27/07 Theory of Mind Theory of Mind: Not a consciously held theory, but automatic ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others to predict and explain behavior. Demonstrated in unique human ability to: – Recognize mental states in others – Communicate them to others – Manipulate them in others – Reflect on own mental states TOM Development • Interest in social stimuli (0 months) – Facial preference • Detection of animacy (3 months) – Biological motion • Detection of agency (6 months) – Self-propulsion, human reaching TOM Development Hand = Object Claw = Location
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ToM Development • Human beings are mental creatures— not physical. • Continuity study with human beings— human beings can disappear! TOM Development • Representation of goals and means (9 months) TOM Development • Represent social interactions and dispositions • 12-month olds and 9-month olds • Help vs. Hinder Results Results: 12-month olds 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Approach Hinderer Approach Helper Test Movie Mean Looking Time (sec ) Results: 9-month olds 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Approach Hinderer Approach Helper Test Movie
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Joint Attention Joint Attention Requires: – ability to follow gaze – understand referential function of pointing – ability to represent action of others – coordination of these processes TOM Development • Joint attention – Monitoring eye gaze (3 mo.) – Social referencing (9-12 mo.) – Protodeclarative pointing (12 mo.) – Intentional reaching, gazing (12 mo.) – True joint attention (18 mo.) Joint Attention Joint Attention
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Belief False-Belief Task 1) Sally plays with her ball, puts it in a basket. 2) Then she leaves. 3) Anne moves the ball to a box. 4) Where will Sally look for it? False-Belief Task 3-year olds: – Sally will look in the box (where it really is) – Perfect copy of the real world 5-year olds: – Sally will look in the basket (where she put it) – Perfect representation of the real world Problem with False-Belief Tasks • Children can misunderstand the question (Lewis & Osborne, 1990) • Children fail to understand the story and key elements of the story (Lewis et al., 1994) • Children do not know that ‘seeing is believing’ (Wimmer et al., 1988) • Children are not able to articulate false-belief (Freeman et al., 1991)
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Why do young children fail? Failure to understand beliefs OR Dual-representation / Inhibit Reality Dual Representation • False Photo Task Dual Representation 3- year olds also fail the false photo task!!! Dual Representation
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Appearance-Reality Distinction Appearance-Reality Distinction Symbols = Dual Representation
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Symbols = Dual Representation HOWEVER… • Implicit study of false-belief in 15-month old • Used violation-of-expectation method Onishi & Baillargeon (2005)
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2010 for the course S 110 taught by Professor Janeerickson during the Summer '07 term at Yale.

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Lecture 10 Social Cognition, Love, and Sex - Theory of Mind...

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