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Lecture 10 Social Cognition, Love, and Sex

Lecture 10 Social Cognition, Love, and Sex - Theory of Mind...

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Lecture #10: Social Cognition, Love & Sex 6/27/07 Theory of Mind Theory of Mind: Not a consciously held theory, but automatic ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others to predict and explain behavior. Demonstrated in unique human ability to: – Recognize mental states in others – Communicate them to others – Manipulate them in others – Reflect on own mental states TOM Development Interest in social stimuli (0 months) – Facial preference Detection of animacy (3 months) – Biological motion Detection of agency (6 months) – Self-propulsion, human reaching TOM Development Hand = Object Claw = Location
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ToM Development Human beings are mental creatures— not physical. Continuity study with human beings— human beings can disappear! TOM Development Representation of goals and means (9 months) TOM Development Represent social interactions and dispositions (Kuhlmeier & Wynn) 12-month olds and 9-month olds Help vs. Hinder Results Results: 12-month olds 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Approach Hinderer Approach Helper Test Movie M ean Lo oking T im e (sec) Results: 9-month olds 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Approach Hinderer Approach Helper Test Movie M ean Lo oking T im e (sec)
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Joint Attention Joint Attention Requires: – ability to follow gaze understand referential function of pointing – ability to represent action of others – coordination of these processes TOM Development Joint attention – Monitoring eye gaze (3 mo.) – Social referencing (9-12 mo.) – Protodeclarative pointing (12 mo.) – Intentional reaching, gazing (12 mo.) – True joint attention (18 mo.) Joint Attention Joint Attention
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Belief False-Belief Task 1) Sally plays with her ball, puts it in a basket. 2) Then she leaves. 3) Anne moves the ball to a box. 4) Where will Sally look for it? False-Belief Task 3-year olds: – Sally will look in the box (where it really is) – Perfect copy of the real world 5-year olds: – Sally will look in the basket (where she put it) – Perfect representation of the real world Problem with False-Belief Tasks Children can misunderstand the question (Lewis & Osborne, 1990) Children fail to understand the story and key elements of the story (Lewis et al., 1994) Children do not know that ‘seeing is believing’ (Wimmer et al., 1988) Children are not able to articulate false-belief (Freeman et al., 1991)
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Why do young children fail? Failure to understand beliefs OR Dual-representation / Inhibit Reality Dual Representation False Photo Task Dual Representation 3- year olds also fail the false photo task!!! Dual Representation
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Appearance-Reality Distinction Appearance-Reality Distinction Symbols = Dual Representation
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Symbols = Dual Representation HOWEVER… Implicit study of false-belief in 15-month old infants (Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) Used violation-of-expectation method Onishi & Baillargeon (2005) Onishi & Baillargeon (2005)
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Onishi & Baillargeon (2005) Onishi & Baillargeon (2005) Onishi & Baillargeon (2005) Theories of TOM Intuitive Theory – Theory Change Simulation Theory – Mirror Neurons – Imitation Evolutionary Theory
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