Lecture 9 Mental Imagery and Reasoning

Lecture 9 Mental Imagery and Reasoning - Lecture Outline...

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Lecture #8: Reasoning and Mental Imagery 6/25/07 Lecture Outline • Deductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • Decision Making • Problem Solving • Mental Imagery The Goal of this Research • Figure out the principles according to which we reason and make decisions. • Two Lessons: – What’s logical isn’t always intuitive – What’s intuitive isn’t always logical Logic Deductive Reasoning – Drawing specific inferences from general premises (where the premises are assumed to be true). Inductive Reasoning – Making general inferences which go beyond the specific information given

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Deduction Premise 1: Yale students only drink on the weekends. Premise 2: Yale students are drinking. Conclusion: It is the weekend. VALIDITY = TRUTH Conditional Logical Forms If A then B. A. Therefore B. MODUS PONENS If A then B. B. Therefore A. AFFIRMING THE CONSEQUENT If A then B. Not B. Therefore Not A. DENYING THE CONSEQUENT If A then B. Not A. Therefore Not B. MODUS TOLLENS A Each of these cards has a letter on one side, and a number on the other side. Consider this claim: If a card has an “A” on one side, then it has a “3” on the other side. Indicate all and only those cards which must be turned over to determine if this claim is true of these 4 cards. 3 D 7 Watson Selection Task • Turn over A: 33% • Turn over A and 3: 46% • Turn over A and 7: 4% A 3 D 7
If a person needs to be 21 in order to drink alcohol, which two cards would you need to turn over to make sure the rule is not being broken? 13 Years Old 31 Years Old Watson Selection Task First Example: – Turn over A: 33% – Turn over A and 3: 46% – Turn over A and 7: 4% Second Example: – Much easier to see that you should turn over cocktail and 13-years old. Categorical Syllogisms Premise 1: All Yale students are smart. Premise 2: You are Yale students. Conclusion: You are smart. Premise 1: All As are B Premise 2: All Bs are Cs Conclusion: All As are Cs VALID! Categorical Syllogisms Premise 1: Some As are Bs. Premise 2: Some Bs are Cs. Conclusion: Some As are Cs. Premise 1: No As are Bs. Premise 2: No Bs are Cs. Conclusion: No As are Cs. INVALID!

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Atmosphere Effect People are prone to accept arguments as valid if the quantifiers (e.g. some, all, no) in the premises and conclusions agree with each other. WHY? Mental Models Premise 1: All artists are beekeepers. Premise 2: All beekeepers are chemists. Conclusion: All artists are chemists. Artist = Beekeeper = Chemist Artist = Beekeeper = Chemist Artist = Beekeeper = Chemist Beekeeper = Chemist Beekeeper = Chemist Chemist Belief-Effects Premise 1: All things that have motors need oil. Premise 2: Automobiles need oil. Conclusion:
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Lecture 9 Mental Imagery and Reasoning - Lecture Outline...

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