Lecture 5 Origins - Cognition in Non-Humans and Infants

Lecture 5 Origins - Cognition in Non-Humans and Infants -...

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Lecture #4: Origins: Cognition in Non-Humans and Infants 6/13/07 Lecture Outline • Why Study Development? • Developmental Issues/Questions • Developmental Methods • Developmental Perception • Developmental Cognition • Conclusions Why Study Development? Insight into the mature form Why Study Development? • Insight Into the Mature form • Social Policy
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Developmental Issues Is development stage-like or continuous? Developmental Issues Does development occur in a global or local manner? Developmental Issues How much do we come into the world with and how much is acquired with experience? Infant Cognition Methods • Brain waves • Preferential Looking • Habituation Paradigm • Imitation • Reaching
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Brain Waves Preferential Looking Preferential Looking Habituation
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Habituation Habituation Test A Test B Physics Familiarization Trials Impossible Outcome Possible Outcome Test Event Physics Impossible Outcome Possible Outcome Imitation
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Behaviors Developmental Perception • Vision – Visual acuity – Color perception – Depth perception • Intermodal Perception – Touch and sight – Sound and sight • Perception and Action Infant Visual Perception • Visual Acuity – Preferential looking – Optokinetic Nystagmus (eye tracking) – Visually evoked potential Infant Visual Perception Age in months Visually evoked potential Optokinetic nystagmus Preferential Looking 0 (newborn) 20-600 20-800 1 20-300 20-300 20-500 6 20-20 20-60 20-150 12 20-20 20-40 20-100 24 20-20 20-20 20-30
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Visual Acuity Development • Wallman et al., 1987 • Baby chick wears contact lenses that present continuous blur to retina, eyeball and retina continue to grow far beyond normal size • Visual system keeps trying to expand size so will receive optimal input. Categorical Color Perception Depth Perception Depth Perception • Infants younger than 8-months will cross the visual cliff. • Other infant animals (goats, chicks, cats, etc.) will not cross the visual cliff. • One explanation: other animals need depth perception before infants (infants do not start crawling until 8-months).
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Depth Perception • HOWEVER… – 2- and 9-month old infants – Slowly lowered them over deep side or shallow side – Measured Heart Rate
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Lecture 5 Origins - Cognition in Non-Humans and Infants -...

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