Lecture 4 Neuroscience and Neuropsychology

Lecture 4 Neuroscience and Neuropsychology - Lecture 12:...

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Lecture 12: Neuropsychology 6/11/07 Lecture Outline • Gross Brain Anatomy • Neurons • Measuring Brain Activity •B r a in D am a g e • Associations, Dissociations and Double Dissociations Tri-Level Hypothesis Computational – What is the problem being solved?
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Phrenology • Gall (early 1800’s) • The brain is the organ of the mind • The mind is composed of multiple, distinct, innate faculties, and thus, so is the brain. Localization of Function Paul Broca and Language The Brain You don’t need your brain for everything… • Sucking in newborns • Limb flexion in withdrawal from pain • Erection of the penis • Vomiting
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The Brain: Subcortical Structures Medulla: certain reflexes, breathing, heartbeat Cerebellum: complicated skilled motor movements Hypothalamus: hunger, thirst, sleep The Brain Somatosensory Area Motor Area
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Hemispheres • Left and Right hemispheres are separate • Corpus Callosum: major pathway between hemispheres • Some functions are lateralized • Lateralization is never 100% Hemispheres • Sensory information sent to opposite hemisphere • Other senses similar Lateralization Neurons
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Transistor Metaphor Structure of Neurons Electric Neuron • Molecules in neural tissue is charged (+ or -) Resting Potential: inside neuron slightly more negative than outside (-70mv) Neural Transmission • When neurotransmitters bind to receptors, they alter post-synaptic potential. • Excitatory Neurotransmitters – Charge becomes depolarized (more positive) • Inhibitory Neurotransmitters – Charge becomes hyperpolarized (more negative)
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Neural Transmission Neural Transmission Action Potential At the base of the axon, a cell’s potential is determined by the sum of all excitatory and inhibitory inputs Action Potential Sequence of voltage changes = action potential
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Phases of the Action Potential The Toilet Metaphor Methods of Measurement • Electrical Stimulation • Single-cell Recording • Measure Electrical Activity – EEG –ERP • Measure Images –PET –fMR I • Lesions/Brain Damage
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2010 for the course S 110 taught by Professor Janeerickson during the Summer '07 term at Yale.

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Lecture 4 Neuroscience and Neuropsychology - Lecture 12:...

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