Lect10native fish lecture exercise 2009 wfc 50

Lect10native fish lecture exercise 2009 wfc 50 -...

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Unformatted text preview: CALIFORNIA
NATIVE
FISH
ECOLOGY
AND
CONSERVATION;

WFC
50,
2009
 
 Come
to
class
prepared
to
discuss
and
to
put
on
the
board
if
called
upon
the
basic
 distribution
of
the
selected
species
in
relation
to
elevation.

Working
with
other
 students,
you
should
be
able
to
say
why
you
show
the
fish
occurring
where
you
put
 them,
based
on
your
experience
from
your
laboratory
exercise
and
information
 provided.

You
should
also
be
discuss
why
the
alien
fish
species
are
likely
to
be
a
 problem
for
the
natives,
based
on
morphology
(i.e.
which
native
species
are
likely
 affected
by
a
particular
alien
species
through
competition
for
food
or
space
or
by
 predation).
 
 This
lecture
exercise
is
designed
to
give
you
an
appreciation
for
the
unique
nature
of
 the
central
California
fish
fauna
and
how
it
is
adapted
to
the
regional
landscape
 
 Ten
take
home
messages
from
the
lecture
 
 1.
Most
native
fishes
are
endemic
to
California

 2.
The
native
fish
fauna
is
a
mixture
of
resident
fishes
and
anadromous
fishes
 3.
The
Central
Valley
(Sacramento
and
San
Joaquin
rivers)
is
the
center
of
native
fish
 diversity
and
abundance
in
California.
 4.
The
native
fishes
are
adapted
to
a
Mediterranean
climate
with
high
flows
in
 winter
and
low
flows
in
summer.
 5.
Different
fish
species
are
adapted
for
different
kinds
of
stream
environments.
 6.
Most
native
fishes
are
in
decline
and
many
are
in
danger
of
extinction.
 7.
Alien
fishes
have
invaded
most
freshwater
habitats
and
are
a
threat
to
native
 fishes
 8.
Freshwater
habitats
have
been
highly
disrupted
by
human
activities,
especially
 the
construction
of
dams
and
the
domination
of
the
landscape
by
farms
and
cities.

 9.
Conservation
of
our
unique
native
fishes
and
their
habitats
is
difficult
but
 desirable.
 10.
The
ultimate
cause
of
loss
of
native
fishes
is
human
population
growth
and
 increasing
use
of
water
and
other
resources.

 
 
 This

diagram
represents
a
cross
section
of
the
Sacramento
Valley,
looking
north,
 showing
the
valley
floor
with
a
river
channel,
the
foothills,
and
the
Sierra
Nevada.

 Above
the
contour
line
draw
lines,
like
that
shown
for
tule
perch,
of
the
predicted
 distribution
of
each
species
of
NATIVE
fish,
based
on
the
information
provided
and
 morphology
(from
your
laboratory
exercise).
 
 Then,
below
the
contour
line,
draw
the
predicted
distributions
of
the
three
ALIEN
 species.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Historically
fishless
 
 area
 
 
 
 
 
 Sierra
Nevada
 
Tule
perch
 
 
 Foothills
 
 
 
 Valley
Floor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 CENTRAL
VALLEY
FISHES:
Background
material

 
 Where
are
these
fishes
found
in
Central
California,
based
on
morphology
and
other
 information
provided?
 
 Fish
illustrations
are
not
drawn
to
scale.
Actual
sizes
are
in
notes.

 
 SACRAMENTO
PIKEMINNOW
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
25‐50
cm
 Top
predator
(fish,
amphibians,
large
invertebrates)
 Requires
large
pools
(<1
m
deep)
or
rivers
 Prefers
cool
to
warm
summer
temperatures
(18‐28°C
 
 
 RAINBOW
TROUT
 Native
to
Pacific
Coast
streams
from
S
CA
to
Japan.
 Adult
lengths
range
from
15
to
60
cm,
depending
on
stream
 Feed
mostly
on
aquatic
and
terrestrial
insects
but
will
take
other
prey
 Prefer
flowing,
well
oxygenated,
cold
water
(less
than
20°
in
summer)
 
 
 
 SACRAMENTO
PERCH
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
10‐30
cm
 Top
predator
(fish,
amphibians,
large
invertebrates)
 Prefers
cool
to
warm
summer
temperatures
(20‐28°C)
 Needs
slow‐moving
water
with
lots
of
cover
 
 
 RIFFLE
SCULPIN
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length

5‐9
cm
 Feeds
on
aquatic
insects
that
live
on
stream
bottoms
 Prefers
cold
summer
temperatures
(less
than
20°C)
 Needs
fast
moving
well
oxygenated
water
 Live
under
large
rocks
 
 
 
 SACRAMENTO
SUCKER
 
 Note
sucking
mouth
with
lips
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
25‐50
cm
 Omnivore,
sucks
up
anything
edible
from
the
bottom
(algae,
insects,
etc.)
 Not
fussy
about
where
it
lives,
but
usually
found
in

large
pools
(<1
m
deep)
in
small
 streams,
in
areas
with
lots
of
big
rocks,

or
rivers
 Prefers
cool
to
warm
summer
temperatures
(18‐28°C)
 _____________________________________________________________________
 
 TULE
PERCH
 
 
 
 Live‐bearer,
endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
8‐12
cm
 Bottom
picker
on
small
invertebrates
 Prefers
cool
to
warm
summer
temperatures
(20‐26°C)
 Prefers
quiet
water
but
can
feed
in
fairly
fast‐moving
water
 Needs
lots
of
cover
(especially
pregnant
females)
 
 
 HARDHEAD
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
25‐50
cm
 Omnivore,
feeds
on
algae,
clams,
crayfish,
insects
 Requires
large
pools
(<1
m
deep)
or
rivers
 Prefers
cool
summer
temperatures
(18‐24°C)
 
 
 
 HITCH
 
 
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
20‐30
cm
 Feed
on
plankton
and
insects
in
water
column
 Requires

slow‐moving
waters,
lakes,
backwaters
 Prefers
warm
summer
temperatures
(22‐30°C)
 
 
 SACRAMENTO
BLACKFISH
 
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
20‐35
cm
 Filter‐
feeder
on
algae
and
plankton
in
water
column
 Requires
slow‐moving
waters,
lakes,
backwaters
 Requires
warm
summer
temperatures
(22‐30°C)
 
 CALIFORNIA
ROACH
 
 
 
 Endemic
to
Central
California
(Sacramento‐San
Joaquin
watersheds)
 Typical
adult
length
4‐8
cm
 Omnivore
on
algae,
small
insects
 Requires
small
creeks
with
few
other
species
of
fish
present
 Prefers
warm
summer
temperatures
(22‐30°C)
 
 COMMON
CARP
 Alien
species,
native
to
Eurasia
 Typical
adult
length
40‐90
cm
 Omnivore,
feed
on
bottom
on
insects,
algae,
organic
matter
 Requires
slow‐moving
waters,
lakes,
backwaters
 Prefers
warm
summer
temperatures
(22‐30°C)
 
 
 LARGEMOUTH
BASS
 
 Alien
species,
native
to
eastern
North
America
 Typical
adult
length
30‐80
cm
 Top
predator
on
fish,
crayfish,
birds,
etc.
 Prefers
slowmoving
waters,
lakes,
backwaters
 Prefers
warm
summer
temperatures
(22‐30°C)
 
 
 
 BROWN
TROUT
 
 
 Alien
species,
native
to
Europe
 Adult
lengths
range
from
15
to
90
cm,
depending
on
stream
 Top
predator
on
fish,
insects,
mice,
other
prey.
 Prefer
flowing,
well
oxygenated,
cold
water
(less
than
20°
in
summer)
 
 
 BLUEGILL
SUNFISH
 
 
 
 Alien
species,
native
to
eastern
North
America
 Typical
adult
length
10‐20
cm
 Feeds
on
insects,
plankton,
larval
fish
etc.
 Prefers
slow‐moving
waters,
lakes,
backwaters
 Prefers
warm
summer
temperatures
(22‐30°C)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ...
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