CH1 Notes - Introduction to Computers and Java Chapter 1...

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Introduction to Computers and Java Chapter 1 Objectives overview computer hardware and software introduce program design and object-oriented programming overview the Java programming language (optional) introduce applets and graphics basics Outline Computer Basics Designing Programs A Sip of Java Prerequisites no assumption of previous programming experience high school algebra access to a computer with Java 5.0 installed Computer Basics: Outline Hardware and Memory Programs Programming Languages and Compilers Java Byte-Code (optional) Graphics Supplement Hardware and Software Computer systems consist of hardware and software. Hardware includes the tangible parts of computer systems. Software includes programs - sets of instructions for the computer to follow. Familiarity with hardware basics helps us understand software. Hardware and Memory Most modern computers have similar components including input devices (keyboard, mouse, etc.) output devices (display screen, printer, etc.) a processor two kinds of memory (main memory and auxiliary memory). The Processor
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also called the CPU (central processing unit) or the chip (e.g. Pentium processor) The processor processes a program’s instructions. It can process only very simple instructions. The power of computing comes from speed and program intricacy. Memory Memory holds programs data for the computer to process the results of intermediate processing. two kinds of memory main memory auxiliary memory Main memory working memory used to store the current program the data the program is using the results of intermediate calculations usually measured in megabytes (e.g. 256 megabytes of RAM) RAM is short for random access memory a byte is a quantity of memory Auxiliary Memory also called secondary memory disk drives, diskettes, CDs, etc. more or less permanent (nonvolatile) usually measured in gigabytes (e.g. 50 gigabyte hard drive) Bits, Bytes, and Addresses A bit is a digit with a value of either 0 or 1. A byte consists of 8 bits. Each byte in main memory resides at a numbered location called its address. Addresses Storing Data Data of all kinds (numbers, letters, strings of characters, audio, video, even programs) are encoded and stored using 1s and 0s. When more than a single byte is needed, several adjacent bytes are used. The address of the first byte is the address of the unit of bytes.
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Files Large groups of bytes in auxiliary memory are called files. Files have names. Files are organized into groups called directories or folders. Java programs are stored in files.
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CH1 Notes - Introduction to Computers and Java Chapter 1...

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