perspectives Chapter 3 Outline

perspectives Chapter 3 Outline - Chapter 3 Outline I...

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Chapter 3 Outline I. Perceiving and Understanding A. The Perception Process 1. Perception is the process by which we notice and make sense of our experience and stimuli around us. 2. Perception is an active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, activities, and situations. 3. Perception and Communication influence each other. 4. Perception contains three main parts: (a) selection (b) organization (c) interpretation. a. (Selection) Our needs, interests, and motive influence what we choose to notice. b. (Organization) We organize our perceptions in meaningful ways. 1.) Constructivism: the theory that hold that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called cognitive schemata. We rely on four schemata to make sense of phenomena: prototypes, personal contructs, stereotypes, and scripts. 2.) Prototypes: knowledge structures that define the clearest or most representative examples of some category. 3.) Personal Constructs: mental yardsticks that allow us to measure people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judgment. Whereas prototypes allow us to decide which broad category a person, situation, or event fits, personal constructs allow us to make more detailed assignment of
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perspectives Chapter 3 Outline - Chapter 3 Outline I...

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