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perspectives Chapter 4 Outline

perspectives Chapter 4 Outline - Chapter 4 Outline I...

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Chapter 4 Outline I. Language and Meaning a. Language consists of symbols, which are representations of people, events, and all that goes on around us and in us. b. Nonverbal Communication: includes symbols that are not words, such as facial expressions, dress and tone of voice. A. Features of Language 1. Verbal Communication: or language consists of symbols in the form of spoken or written words. a. Arbitrariness: language is arbitrary, which means that verbal symbols are not intrinsically connected to what they represent. b. Ambiguity: Language is ambiguous, which means that it doesn’t have clear-cut, precise meanings. The ambiguity of language can lead to the misunderstandings that sometimes plague communication. c. Abstraction: language is abstract, which means that words are not concrete or tangible phenomena. They stand for ideas, people, events, objects, feelings, and so forth, but they are not things that they represent. MOST ABSTRACT Action Avoid interacting Judgment Makes judgments about someone Label Applied Judgments re-assured Perceiving Behavior Ask a lot of questions Concrete Phenomena MOST CONCRETE B. Principles of Communication 1. Interpretation Create Meaning: because language is abstract, ambiguous, and arbitrary, we have to interpret it to determine what it means. a. Brute Facts are objective, concrete phenomena and activities.
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b. Institutional Facts are the meanings of brute facts based on human interpretation. 2. Communication is Guided by Rules a. Communication rules: shared understandings among members of a particular culture or social group about what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations.
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