Outline4f09_PartsCovered

Outline4f09_PartsCovered - 1 This version of Outline 4 was...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 This version of Outline 4 was posted after class on Sept. 17 and it indicates i n gray like this the portions that we did NOT get to by the end of class. These portions will not be covered on the test. Outline 4: Neurotransmitters & Psychoactive Drugs Part 1: I. Return to Neural Transmission A. Neurotransmitters: How they work in general: -Action potential reaching a bouton causes exocytosis - release of neurotransmitters. -This is often accomplished via the opening of voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (permitting influx of Ca2+) -Neurotransmitters spill into the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the post-synaptic membrane. -These receptors are either ionotropic ("ion-channel linked receptors") or metabotropic ("G-protein-linked receptors") Ionotropic receptors cause immediate EPSPs or IPSPs by changing the shape of ion channels Metabotropic receptors can cause a slower onset of PSPs or other changes (e.g., changes in cellular metabolism, gene expression) 2 - Inhibitory neurotransmitters produce IPSPs - Excitatory neurotransmitters produce EPSPs II. Classes of Neurotransmitters: A. Amino Acids 1. Glutamate- the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain 2. GABA- the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain B. Monoamines 1. Catecholamines- synthesized from tyrosine Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (NE) (also known as noradrenaline) Epinephrine (E) (aka adrenaline) Which of these catecholamines is used is dependent upon the synthesizing enzymes in the neuron 2. Indolamines--Serotonin (5HT)- synthesized from tryptophan C. Acetylcholine- used by cholinergic neurons A, B and C are packaged in small vesicles D. Neuropeptides- packaged in large vesicles -tend to act via indirect receptors using 2nd messengers - e.g., endorphins (endogenous opiates) are neuropeptides 2 - Inhibitory neurotransmitters produce IPSPs - Excitatory neurotransmitters produce EPSPs II. Classes of Neurotransmitters: A. Amino Acids 1. Glutamate- the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain 2. GABA- the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain B. Monoamines 1. Catecholamines- synthesized from tyrosine Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (NE) (also known as noradrenaline) Epinephrine (E) (aka adrenaline) Which of these catecholamines is used is dependent upon the synthesizing enzymes in the neuron 2. Indolamines--Serotonin (5HT)- synthesized from tryptophan C. Acetylcholine- used by cholinergic neurons A, B and C are packaged in small vesicles D. Neuropeptides- packaged in large vesicles -tend to act via indirect receptors using 2nd messengers - e.g., endorphins (endogenous opiates) are neuropeptides 3 E. Soluble Gases- nitric oxide and carbon monoxide -not packaged in vesicles -freely diffusible -at least some of their actions are via 2nd messengers III. Neurons vary in the nature of their communication 1. Length and myelination of axons 2. The neurotransmitters used for signaling 3. The type and configuration of synaptic inputs 4. The influence of non-chemical synapses "electrotonic coupling" 5. The influence of hormones...
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Outline4f09_PartsCovered - 1 This version of Outline 4 was...

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