Lecture 06 - through mitosis AUTOSOME - chromosome not...

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BIOLOGY 1001: LECTURE 6 INHERITANCE AND REPRODUCTION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Prokaryote: organism that lacks a nucleus Eukaryote: organism whose chromosomes are contained within a nucleus Diploid cell: cell containing two sets of chromosomes, 2N, one from each parent Haploid cell: cell containing only one set of chromosomes, N Eukaryotic cell division: 1.Somatic (body) cell division: MITOSIS Both daughter cells are diploid, and they are genetically identical 2.Gamete cell formation: MEIOSIS Diploid cell produces four haploid cells that are genetically distinct Recombination, the reshuffling of parental chromosomes from: 1.Independent assortment of chromosomes 2.Cross-overs (transfer of segments between non-sister chromatids) Reconstitution of diploidy results from the sexual fusion of haploid gametes Meiosis only involves the nuclear chromosomes; organelles (chloroplasts and mitochondria) reproduce
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Unformatted text preview: through mitosis AUTOSOME - chromosome not directly involved in sex determination CENTROMERE - the region where sister chromatids join CHIASMATA - sites on the tetrad where cross-overs occur GENE - unit of heredity. The region of a chromosome that carries the information for a single protein HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES - chromosome pairs of the same length that possess genes for the same trait. One member of the pair is inherited from the mother, the other from the father. KARYOTYPE - number, size and type of chromosomes in a cell SISTER CHROMATID - replicated forms of a chromosome, joined together and eventually separated at mitosis/meiosis TETRAD - pairs of homologous sister chromatids, joined together and separated at meiosis...
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