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Lecture 07&08 - 4.Ratio of phenotypes in the F2...

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BIOLOGY 1001: LECTURES 7 & 8 MENDELIAN GENETICS: DOMINANCE, SEGREGATION, AND INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT GENE: unit of inheritance; region of DNA that encodes for a single protein molecule LOCUS: location of a gene along the length of the chromosome HOMOLOGOUS PAIR: in diploid organisms, each chromosome is matched by another chromosome that codes for the same genes ALLELES: alternative forms of the same gene HOMOZYGOTE: individual that carries two identical alleles for a particular gene HETEROZYGOTE: individual that carries different alleles for a particular gene DOMINANCE: the ability of a single allele to determine the phenotype of the heterozygote SEGREGATION: separation of homologous pairs at meiosis INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT: Recombination of non-homologous chromosomes Mendel's experiments. 1.Developed true-breeding lines (parental or "p" generation) 2.Hybridized different lines (producing first filial or "F1" generation) 3.Hybridized members of the F1 generation (producing the F2 generation)
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Unformatted text preview: 4.Ratio of phenotypes in the F2 revealed dominance, segregation, and independent assortment 5.These experiments showed that inherited traits are not blended and that recombination can increase variability DIHYBRID CROSS: Mating of parents that differ in two different traits LINKAGE: Tendency for genes on the same chromosome to be passed on together. Linkage is highest for genes in adjacent regions of the chromosome. GENE MAPPING: Determination of physical location of genes on each chromosome. Complications to Mendelian genetics: 1.POLYGENIC TRAITS: Where multiple loci affect a single trait 2.EPISTASIS: Where one locus influences the expression of another locus 3.PLEIOTROPY: Where a single locus affects multiple traits SEX-LINKED TRAITS: Traits coded by genes on the sex chromosomes. HEMIZYGOTE: Genotype of a haploid, or of a diploid possessing non-homologous sex chromosomes....
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