4 Carbohydrates

4 Carbohydrates - CARBOHYDRATES Sugars, Starches, The...

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CARBOHYDRATES Sugars, Starches, The Dentist, and Atkins Lecture 4 February 4, 2008 Dr. Hirsch
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Six Classes of Nutrients 1. Carbohydrate 2. Protein 3. Fat 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Macronutrients Outline Basics and General Info Composition, Structure, Nomenclature Dietary Sources Functions in the Body Health Implications: Carbohydrates and Health Carbohydrates as Ingredients Physical Functionality
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Carbohydrate Basics Primary role : provide the body with energy Ultimate Targets : brain and nervous system Considered an ideal fuel as compared to other sources of calories Less expensive than protein. Multiple health benefits High-fat diets are associated with chronic disease
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 General Carbohydrate Info Constitute ¾ of biological world Made of carbon and water C n (H 2 O) n All carbohydrates are composed of single sugars, alone or in various combinations
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Carbohydrate Structure Simple Sugars are the Building Blocks MONOsaccharides DIsaccharides Galactose Fructose Glucose Lactose Maltose Sucrose All All carbohydrates are composed of single sugars, alone or in various combinations
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Simple Complex
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Simple Sugar Glucose = Blood Sugar most common carbohydrate also known as dextrose main source of energy most quickly absorbed
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Simple Sugar Fructose = Fruit Sugar absorbed much slower than glucose predominantly metabolized in the liver does not require insulin to be used natural sources include: fruits, some vegetables honey, sugar cane and sugar beets generally refined from corn starch 15 to 80% sweeter than sucrose
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Simple Sugar Sucrose Single most abundant pure organic chemical in the world Table sugar Whether raw or refined, common sugar is sucrose
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Complex Carbohydrates Long chains of sugars Also called polysaccharides poly = many saccharides = sugar unit Starch Fibers
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Carbohydrate Sources Carbohydrate-rich foods are obtained almost exclusively from plants Milk is the only animal-derived food that contains significant carbohydrate Made by green plants during photosynthesis
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 Dietary Recommendations
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Department of Food Science Lecture 4 – February 4, 2008 We are advised to choose plenty  of whole foods like this…
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course FOOD SCI 104 taught by Professor Hirsch,quadro,wasserman during the Fall '07 term at Rutgers.

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4 Carbohydrates - CARBOHYDRATES Sugars, Starches, The...

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