Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions - Chapter...

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4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 4.1 The distribution of its bonding electrons and the shape of the molecule are both unsymmetrical. 4.2 Ionic compounds or polar covalent compounds. 4.3 Ions must be present, which could come from ionic compounds or from other electrolytes such as acids or bases. 4.4 The ions on the surface of the solid attract the water molecules (cations attract the "negative" end and anions attract the "positive" end of the water molecules). The interaction of the solvent with the ions overcomes the attraction of the oppositely-charged ions for one another, and they are released into the solution. 4.5 a) 2 b) 3 c) 1 4.6 2 4.7 In some cases, the force of the attraction between the ions is so strong that it cannot be overcome by the interaction of the ions with the water molecules. These materials will be insoluble in water. 4.8 Depending on the structure of the molecule, if it does not interact well with water molecules, the compound will not be very soluble in water. If the covalent molecule contains polar groups, they will interact well with the polar solvent water. 4.9 In general, covalent compounds which produce ions in aqueous solution interact with the water molecules to produce either H + ( aq ) or OH - ( aq ), producing an acidic or basic (alkaline) solution, respectively. These compounds contain combined hydrogen atoms. Examples include hydrochloric acid (HCl), acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ), and ammonia (NH 3 ). 4.10 a) Molecules of benzene are symmetrical and not much like water, so it would most likely be insoluble in water. b) Sodium hydroxide, an ionic compound, would be expected to be soluble in water, and the solubility rules confirm this. c) Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) molecules are similar in structure to water molecules (both contain O - H bonds), so it is soluble. d) Potassium acetate, an ionic compound, would be expected to be soluble in water, and this is confirmed by the solubility rules. 4.11 a) Lithium nitrate, an ionic compound, would be expected to be soluble in water, and the solubility rules confirm this. b) Glycine is a covalent compound, but it contains polar N - H and O - H bonds. This would make the molecule interact well with polar water molecules, and make it likely that it would be soluble. c) Pentane (C 5 H 12 ) has a very symmetrical structure with no bonds of significant polarity, so would not be expected to be soluble in the polar solvent water. d) Ethylene glycol (HOCH 2 CH 2 OH) molecules contain polar O - H bonds, similar to water, so it would be expected to be soluble. 4.12 a) Yes; CsI is a salt and a strong electrolyte. b) Yes; HBr is one of the strong acids. 4.13 a) Yes; NaOH is a strong base. 55
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Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions - Chapter...

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