Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure - Chapter 7.1...

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Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure 7.1 All types of electromagnetic radiation travel as waves at the same speed. They differ in both their frequency and wavelength. 7.2 a) X-rays < ultraviolet < visible < infrared <microwave < radio waves. b) and c) reverse of the above order 7.3 a) refraction: the bending of light waves at the boundary of two media, as when light travels from air into water. b) diffraction: the bending of light waves around an object, as when a wave passes through a slit about as wide as its wavelength. c) dispersion: separation of light into its component colors (wavelengths), as when light passes through a prism. d) interference: the bending of light through a series of parallel slits to produce a diffraction pattern of brighter and darker spots. NOTE: Refraction leads to a dispersion effect and diffraction leads to a interference effect. 7.4 Evidence for the wave model is seen in the phenomena of diffraction and refraction. Evidence for the particle model includes the photoelectric effect and blackbody radiation. 7.5 He proposed that energy exists only in distinct packages, which he called quanta, and that energy losses and gains by atoms could only be in these units of energy. The magnitude of these gains and losses were whole-number multiples of the frequency: E = nh ν . 7.6 Radiation (light energy) occurs as quanta of electromagnetic radiation, where each packet of energy is called a photon. The energy associated with this photon is fixed by its frequency, E = h ν . Since energy depends on frequency, a threshold (minimum) frequency is to be expected. A current will flow as soon as a photon of sufficient energy reaches the metal plate, so there is no time lag. 7.7 c = λν m 10 x 12 . 3 = s 10 x 960 m/s 10 x 3.00 = c = m) ( 2 1 3 8 - ν λ nm 10 x 12 . 3 = m 1 nm 10 x m 10 x 12 . 3 = (nm) 11 9 2 λ Å 10 x 12 . 3 = m 1 Å 10 x m 10 x 12 . 3 = ) Å ( 12 10 2 λ 7.8 m 21 . 3 = s 10 x 5 . 93 m/s 10 x 3.00 = c = (m) 1 6 8 - ν λ nm 10 x 21 . 3 = m 1 nm 10 x m 21 . 3 = (nm) 9 9 λ 134
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Å 10 x 2.90 = m 1 Å 10 x m 21 . 3 = ) Å ( 10 10 λ 7.9 34 10 1 23 = = (6.626 x 10 J s) (3.6 x 10 s ) = 2.4 x 10 J - - - λ ν E 7.10 34 8 1 15 10 (6.626 x 10 J s) (3.00 x m s ) = = = 1.5 x 10 J 1 m (1.3 Å) 10 Å - - - λ hc E 7.11 red ( λ = 660 nm) < yellow ( λ = 595 nm) < blue ( λ = 453 nm) 7.12 UV ( ν = 8.0 x 10 15 s -1 ) > IR ( ν = 6.5 x 10 13 s -1 ) > microwave ( ν = 9.8 x 10 11 s -1 ) 7.13 8 2 9 1 2.9979 x m/s (m) = = = 1.3483 x 10 m 22.235 x s - - λ ν c nm 10 x 3483 . 1 = m 1 nm 10 x m 10 x 3483 . 1 = (nm) 7 9 2 - λ Å 10 x 3483 . 1 = m 1 Å 10 x m 10 x 3483 . 1 = ) Å ( 8 10 2 - 7.14 a) 8 13 1 6 3.00 x m/s = = = 3.1 x 10 s 10 m 9.6 m m - - ν λ μ μ c b) 8 6 13 -1 2.998 x m/s 10 m = = = 3.465 m m 8.652 x s μ λ μ ν c 7.15 19 6 20 34 1.602 x 10 J 1.33 x eV eV = = = 3.22 x Hz 6.626 x 10 J s - - ν E h 8 13 20 1 3.00 x m/s = = = 9.32 x 10 m 3.22 x s - - λ ν c 7.16 a) 8 15 1 9 3.00 x m/s = = = 1.24 x 10 m 242 nm nm - - ν λ c 34 15 1 19 = = (6.626 x 10 J s ) (1.24 x 10 s ) = 8.21 x 10 J - - - ν E h b) 8 15 1 10 3.00 x m/s = = = 1.4 x s 10 m 2200 Å Å - - ν λ c 34 15 -1 19 = = (6.626 x 10 J s ) (1.4 x = 9.0 x 10 J - - ν E h 135
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7.17 " n ", in the Rydberg equation is equal to a Bohr orbit of quantum number " n " where n = 1, 2, 3, . .. ∞.
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Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure - Chapter 7.1...

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