Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Bonding - Chapter 9 Models of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Bonding 9.1 a) Larger ionization energy decreases metallic character. b) Larger atomic radius increases metallic character. c) Larger number of outer electrons decreases metallic character. d) Larger effective nuclear charge decreases metallic character. 9.2 Bismuth is more metallic than nitrogen. Metallic properties increase from top to bottom in a group. 9.3 The tendency of main-group elements to form cations decreases from Group 1A(1) to 4A(14), and the tendency to form anions increases from Group 4A(14) to 7A(17). 1A(1) and 2A(2) elements form mono- and divalent cations, respectively, while 6A(16) and 7A(17) elements form di- and monovalent anions, respectively. 9.4 a) Cs b) Rb c) As 9.5 a) O b) Be c) Se 9.6 a) ionic b) covalent c) metallic 9.7 a) covalent b) covalent c) ionic 9.8 a) covalent b) ionic c) covalent 9.9 a) metallic b) covalent c) ionic 9.10 a) Rb b) c) 9.11 a) Ba b) c) 9.12 a) Sr b) c) 9.13 a) b) c) 9.14 a) 6A(16); n s 2 n p 4 b) 3A(13); n s 2 n p 1 9.15 a) 5A(15); n s 2 n p 3 166 . I . . . . Kr . . . . Br . . . . . P . . . . S . . . . . . . As . . . . Se . . . . . . . . Ga Si . . . . b) 4A(14); n s 2 n p 2 9.16 The lattice energy is an important indication of the strength of ionic interactions and more than compensates for the required energy to form ions from metals and non- metals. 9.17 Because the lattice energy is the result of electrostatic attractions among the oppositely charged ions, its magnitude depends on several factors, including ionic size, ionic charge, and the arrangement of ions in the solid. For a particular arrangement of ions, the lattice energy increases as the charges on the ions increase and as their radii decrease. 9.18 The lattice energy drives the energetically unfavorable electron transfer resulting in solid formation. 9.19 The lattice energy drives the energetically unfavorable electron transfer resulting in solid formation. 9.20 a) Ba ([Xe]6 s 2 ) + 2 Cl ([Ne]3 s 2 3 p 5 ) Ba 2+ ([Xe]) + 2 Cl- ([Ne]3 s 2 3 p 6 ) + 2 - BaCl 2 b) Sr ([Kr]5 s 2 ) + O ([He]2 s 2 2 p 4 ) Sr 2+ ([Kr]) + O 2- ([He]2 s 2 2 p 6 ) Sr + - SrO c) Al ([Ne]3 s 2 3 p 1 ) + 3 F ([He]2 s 2 2 p 5 ) Al 3+ ([Ne]) + 3 F ([He]2 s 2 2 p 6 ) + 3 AlF 3 d) 2 Rb ([Kr]5 s 1 ) + O ([He]2 s 2 2 p 4 ) 2 Rb + ([Kr]) + O 2 ([He]2 s 2 2 p 6 ) 2 Rb + Rb 2 O 9.21 a) 2 Cs ([Xe]6 s 1 ) + S ([Ne]3 s 2 3 p 4 ) 2 Cs + ([Xe]) + S 2 ([Ne]3 s 2 3 p 6 ) 2 Cs + Cs 2 S b) 2 Ga ([Ar]3 d 10 4 s 2 4 p 1 ) + 3 O ([He]2 s 2 2 p 4 ) 2 Ga 3+ ([Ar]3 d 10 ) + 3 O 2 ([He]2 s 2 2 p 6 ) 2 + 3 Ga 2 O 3 c) 3 Mg ([Ne]3 s 2 ) + 2 N ([He]2 s 2 2 p 3 ) 3 Mg 2+ ([Ne]) + 2 N 3 ([He]2 s 2 2 p 6 ) 167 ....
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Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Bonding - Chapter 9 Models of...

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