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Chapter 11 Theories of Covalent Bonding

Chapter 11 Theories of Covalent Bonding - Chapter 11.1 11.2...

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Chapter 11 Theories of Covalent Bonding 11.1 a) sp 2 b) sp 3 d 2 c) sp d) sp 3 e) sp 3 d 11.2 a) sp 2 b) sp 3 c) sp 3 d d) sp 3 d 2 11.3 C has only 2 s and 2 p orbitals, allowing for a maximum of four hybrids. Si has 3 d orbitals available in addition to the 3 s and 3 p , so it can form up to six hybrids. 11.4 Four. The same number of hybrid orbitals will form as the initial number of orbitals mixed. 11.5 a) six sp 3 d 2 orbitals b) four sp 3 orbitals 11.6 a) two sp orbitals b) five sp 3 d orbitals 11.7 a) sp 2 b) sp 2 c) sp 2 11.8 a) sp 2 b) sp 2 c) sp 11.9 a) sp 3 b) sp 3 c) sp 3 11.10 d) sp 3 d b) sp 3 c) sp 3 d 2 11.11 a) sp 3 s + 3 p b) sp s + p 11.12 a) sp 3 s + 3 p b) sp 3 d s + 3 p + d 11.13 a) sp 3 d s + 3 p + d b) sp 3 s + 3p 11.14 a) sp 3 d s + 3p + d b) sp 3 s + 3p 196
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11.15 a) ↑↓ s p sp 3 b) ↑↓ s p sp 2 p c) ↑↓ + e - s p sp 2 p 197
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11.16 a) ↑↓ + e - s p sp 3 b) ↑↓ + 3e - ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ s p sp 3 c) ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ s p sp 2 p 11.17 a) ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ s p sp 3 b) ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ + e - s p sp 3 c) ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ + e - s p d ↑↓ ↑↓ sp 3 d 2 d 3 11.18 a) ↑↓ ↑↓ s p sp 3 b) ↑↓ ↑↓ s p sp 2 p c) ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ + e - s p d ↑↓ ↑↓ sp 3 d 2 d 3 11.19 N sp 2 120 o , bent C(CH 3 ) sp 3 109.5 o , tetrahedral C(C=O) sp 180 o , linear 11.20 a) False. A double bond is one sigma and one pi bond. b) False. A triple bond consists of one sigma ( σ ) and two pi ( π ) bonds. c) True d) True e) False. A π bond consists of a second pair of electrons after a σ bond has been previously formed. 198 C H N H H C O .. ..
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f) False. End-to-end overlap results in a bond with electron density along the bond axis. 11.21 a) 3 ( σ ) + 1 ( π ) about N, sp 2 hybridization b) 2 ( σ ) + 2 ( π ) about C, sp hybridization c) 3 ( σ ) + 1 ( π ) about C, sp 2 hybridization 199 S C S .. .. H C H O O N O .. .. O .. .. -
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11.22 a) O 3 2 ( σ ) + 2 ( π ) about the central O, sp 2 hybridization b) I 3 - 2 ( σ ) about central I, sp 3 d hybridization c) COCl 2 3 ( σ ) + 1 ( π ) about C, sp 2 hybridization 11.23 a) 2 ( Φ ) + 1 ( π ) about N, sp 2 hybridization b) 3 ( σ ) + 1 ( π ) about each C, sp 2 hybridization c) 2 ( σ ) + 2 ( π ) about each C, sp hybridization 11.24 a) BrF 3 3 ( σ ) about Br, sp 3 d hybridization b)
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