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Chapter 23 - Chapter 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23 The...

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23 Chapter The Transition Elements and Their Coordination Compounds 23.1 It is always one less than the period number. 23.2 a) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10 4 p 6 5 s 2 4 d x b) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10 4 p 6 5 s 2 4 d 10 5 p 6 6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d x 23.3 Electrons with the highest n value are removed first, so the ns electrons are removed before the (n-1)d. V 3 + is [Ar] 3d 2 . The ionization energies and the magnetic properties. 23.4 Five; Mn ([Ar] 4 s 2 3 d 5 ) and Mn 2 + ([Ar] 3 d 5 ). 23.5 For the main group elements, size decreases as you move to the right. For the transition elements, the size is fairly constant since inner orbitals are being filled. 23.6 a) The lanthanide contraction is the "shrinkage" of atoms following the filling of the 4f subshell (i.e., the atoms are smaller than expected). b) The size increases from Period 4 to Period 5, but stays fairly constant (or increases only slightly) from Period 5 to Period 6. c) The smaller-than-expected sizes lead to very large densities. 23.7 a) 1.3–1.9 b) 0.8–2.8 c) The range is smaller for the transition elements because the electrons are occupying d orbitals. Since these are inner orbitals, they shield (screen) the nuclear charge, making electrons shared between the transition metal and some bonded atom feel a fairly constant effective nuclear charge. 23.8 a) Transition elements commonly show multiple oxidation states; main-group elements less frequently. Since the outermost s and d electrons are so close in energy, all of these can become involved in the bonding. b) Because the two ns electrons are more easily removed than the (n-1)d electrons. 23.9 a) Paramagnetic materials are attracted into a magnetic field; diamagnetic ones are repelled. Frequently, paramagnetic materials are also colored. b) Most main-group element ions are isoelectronic with a noble gas, meaning that all their electrons are paired. c) Because main-group metal ions are diamagnetic, most have a filled outer shell (or at least the subshell) and too much energy would be required to promote an electron to a higher energy orbital. 23.10 a) [Ar] 4 s 2 3 d 3 b) [Kr] 5 s 2 4 d 1 c) [Xe] 6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 10 23.11 a) [Kr] 5 s 2 4 d 6 b) [Ar] 4 s 1 3 d 10 c) [Ar] 4 s 2 3 d 8 23.12 a) [Xe] 6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 6 b) [Ar] 4 s 2 3 d 7
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c) [Kr] 5 s 1 4 d 10
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23.13 a) [Ar] 4 s 2 3 d 10 b) [Ar] 4 s 2 3 d 5 c) [Xe] 6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 5 23.14 a) [Ar]; 0 b) [Ar] 3 d 9 ; 1 c) [Ar] 3 d 5 ; 5 d) [Kr] 4 d 2 ; 2 23.15 a) [Ar] 3 d 3 ; 3 b) [Ar]; 0 c) [Ar] 3 d 6 ; 4 d) [Xe] 4 f 14 5 d 3 ; 3 23.16 a) + 5 b) + 4 c) + 7 23.17 a) + 5 b) + 3 c) + 7 23.18 Cr, Mo, and W 23.19 Ti, Zr, and Hf 23.20 In CrF 2 , since metallic behavior is greater in lower oxidation states. 23.21 Due to its lower oxidation state, VF 3 would have greater ionic character, so would be more likely to have a high melting and boiling point. 23.22 While atomic size increases slightly down a group of transition elements, the nuclear charge increases much more, so the first ionization energy generally increases. With a higher ionization energy, Mo would be more difficult to oxidize.
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