Chapter 13 properties of mixture

Chapter 13 properties of mixture - Chapter 13.1 he...

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and Colloids Chapter 13 The Properties of Mixtures: Solutions 13.1 A heterogeneous mixture has two or more phases, thus sea water has both dissolved and suspended particles. The composition of the sea water is different in various places where a sample may be obtained. 13.2 When a salt such as NaCl dissolves, ion-dipole forces cause the ions to become separated, and more water molecules cluster around them in hydration shells. 13.3 In CH 3 (CH 2 ) n COOH, as n increases, the hydrophobic portion of the carboxylic acid increases and the hydrophilic part of the molecule stays the same, with a resulting decrease in water solubility. 13.4 Sodium stearate is more effective as a soap. The long chain stearate ion has both a hydrophilic carboxylate and a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, which allows it to reduce surface tension between oil and water and to act as a soap. The acetate ion is too small to exhibit any hydrophobic qualities. 13.5 Hexane and methanol, as gases, are free from any intermolecular forces and can simply intermix with each other. As liquids, hexane is a non-polar molecule, whereas methanol is a polar molecule. "Like dissolves like." 13.6 Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas is actually reacting with the solvent (water) and thus shows a higher solubility than propane (C 3 H 8 ) gas which does not react, even though HCl has a lower boiling point. 13.7 a) In the polar solvent water, KNO 3 ionizes completely and forms more concentrated solutions. KNO 3 , an ionic salt, does not dissolve in or interact well with the non-polar carbon tetrachloride. 13.8 b) Stearic acid in CCl 4 . Stearic acid will not dissolve in water. It is non-polar while water is very polar. Stearic acid will dissolve in carbon tetrachloride as both are non-polar. 13.9 a) ion-dipole forces b) hydrogen bonding c) dipole-induced dipole forces 13.10 a) substitutional or interstitial diffusion forces b) dipole-dipole c) dispersion forces 13.11 a) hydrogen bonding b) dipole-induced dipole c) dispersion forces 13.12 a) dispersion forces b) hydrogen bonding c) dispersion forces 13.13 a) HCl(g); molecular interactions (dipole-dipole forces) are greater. b) CH 3 CHO; interactions (dipole-dipole forces) are greater. c) CH 3 CH 2 MgBr; molecular interactions (dispersion forces) are greater. 13.14 a) CH 3 CH 2 O CH 3 (g), due to its smaller size (smaller molar mass). b) CH 2 Cl 2 , because it is more polar than CCl 4 . c) Tetrahydropyran is more water soluble due to hydrogen bonding between the oxygen atom and water molecules. 226
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13.15 No. River water is a heterogeneous mixture, with its composition changing from one segment to another. 13.16 Gluconic acid is soluble in water due to its extensive hydrogen bonding through its polar hydroxyl groups which caproic acid does not have. The nonpolar end of caproic acid allows it to be more soluble in nonpolar hexane. 13.17
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2010 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Kobiashi during the Spring '07 term at Ventura College.

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Chapter 13 properties of mixture - Chapter 13.1 he...

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