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Biological Bases of Behavior

Biological Bases of Behavior - Biological Bases of Behavior...

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Biological Bases of Behavior Nervous system: Complex communication and information processing network Two basic types of cells in the nervous system 1. Glia: support cells, “glue” 2. Neurons: communication cells Structure of Neuron (Fig. 3.1 on page 64 ) 1. Soma – cell body 2. Axon – “sending” part of neuron - remember by thinking "Axon = away" 3. Dendrite – “receiving” part of neuron 4. Myelin sheath – fatty covering that insulates axon fiber 5. Terminal buttons – knobs at end of axon fiber, contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitter molecules 6. Synapse – junction that includes terminal button of sending axon, synaptic cleft (space between terminal button and dentrite), and dendrite of receiving neuron Vescicles: hold neurotransmitter molicules Function of Neuron (Fig. 3.3 on page 66 and 3.4 on page 67) 1. Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites on dendrites 2. When enough neurotransmitters bind to dendrites, the neuron starts action potential that spreads down axon to the terminal buttons 3. When action potential reaches the terminal buttons, vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft - Action potential menaing electrical chain telling vesicles to release neurotransmitter molicules 4. Steps 1 – 3 are repeated in adjacent neurons Neurotransmitters A. Major neurotransmitters and some functions they influence: 1.
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