Ch 3 Book Notes

Ch 3 Book Notes - Glia cells found throughout the nervous...

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Two major categories of cells in the nervous system: Glia and Neurons Neurons: individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information Basic links that permit communication within the nervous system Soma: cell body, containing the cell nucleous tand much of the chemical machinery common to most cells Dendrites: the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information (they're branched off like a tree) Axon: long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin sheath: insulating material that encases some axons Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters, serving as messengers that may activate neighboring neurons Synapse: junction where the information is transmitted from one neuron to another Information is received at the dendrites, passed through the soma, along the axon, transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapses
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Unformatted text preview: Glia: cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons Tend to be smaller, outnumber neurons by 10 to 1 Neural impulse is a complex electrochemical reaction There is a difference in flow rates, leading to a higher concentration of negatively charged ions inside cell Resulting voltage means that neuron at rest is a tiny battery, store of potential e nergy: Resting potential of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive Action potential is brief shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon. Neuron is stimulated, cell membrane opens, allows positively charged sodium ions to rush in, making the neurons charge less negative and eventually positive. The all-or-none law: firing of action potentials: either the neuron fires or it doesn’t Neurons can convey information about stregnth of a stimulus by varying the rate at which they fire action potentials...
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This note was uploaded on 01/22/2010 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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