Microbiology Notes Chapter 2 - Microbiology Chapter 2 Class...

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Microbiology – Chapter 2 Class Notes: Acid: a hydrogen ion (H + ) or proton donor . Releases H + ions Base/Alkaline: a proton acceptor, or a hydroxyl ion (OH - ) donor . Accepts H + ions or release OH - ions pH scale: relates proton concentration to pH (logarithmic scale) 0-14 0 - 7 = Acid 7 = Neutral 7 - 14 = Base/Alkaline pH values 6-9 is where growth of most bacteria occur Stomach – hydrocholoric acid kills microbes you consume (pH level of 1) Blood has a pH of 7 Organic Chemistry: study of carbon-containing compounds Biochemistry: study of chemical reactions that occur in living systems Major classes of Large, Complex Biochemical Molecules (organic compounds) occur naturally in living things and in the products or remains of living things. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Simplest carbon compounds are the hydrocarbons – chains of carbon atoms with their associated hydrogen atoms. Functional Group: part of a molecule that generally participates in chemical reactions as a unit and that gives the molecule some of its chemical properties. Reduced: groups with little oxygen, such as alcohol groups Oxidized: groups with relatively more oxygen, such as carboxyl groups Oxidation: the addition of oxygen or the removal of hydrogen or electrons from a substance. Burning is an example of oxidation Reduction: Removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen or electrons to a substance. The more reduced a molecule, the more energy it has 1
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Microbiology – Chapter 2 2
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Microbiology – Chapter 2 Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acid Sugar Starch Energy Glycogen Fat Fatty Acids Cholesterol
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