Lecture XXIII � Biomes

Lecture XXIII � Biomes - Lecture XXIII Biomes and...

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Lecture XXIII – Biomes and Biome Distribution
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Biome Map
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Alternative Biome Map
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Biomes of the World A few major types of biome: Tundra, Forest Grassland, Desert Aquatic
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Climatic Determinants of Biomes The major climatic factors determining biome distribution are average annual rainfall, temperature, and the seasonality in these two factors. Secondary factors include: soil conditions, fires and grazing/browsing regimes. In some cases the activities of humans have dramatically changed the biome type that would be characteristic of the region naturally.
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General Climate Determinants of Biomes This is a very general diagram. Seasonality and variation in temperature or rainfall may also be important in determining biome
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Variation: Walter-Leith Climate Diagrams Temperature and precipitation graphs are overlaid at a scale which matches temperature with the evaporation equals precipitation.
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Variation: Walter-Leith Climate Diagrams If the blue (rainfall) line is above the orange (temperature) line, then there is sufficient moisture for plant growth (assuming temps above freezing). If mean monthly temperature is above freezing, the months at the bottom of the graph are highlighted in tan.
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Species Distribution in Communities Let us see some typical climate diagram examples for common biome types:
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Biome Borders While biomes can be very distinct, the borders between biomes tend to be fuzzy Because of this, different classification themes exist for biomes
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Biomes - Tropical Forests (Evergreen and Seasonal) Location : Evergreen : Central America, Amazon basin, coastal Brazil, Congo basin and southern W Africa, E. Madagascar, Indo- Malay region (SW India, southern SE Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea), NE Australia. Seasonal (deciduous) : western Central America, south of Amazon basin, eastern South Asia, interior SE Asia, N northern Australia.
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Biomes - Tropical Forests (Evergreen and Seasonal) Vegetation : Evergreen forest : highest species diversity in woody plants, tall trees (100-120’), multiple layers, ground layer sparse, epiphytes, lianas (stanglers and climbers), trunk buttresses, stilt roots, leaf drip tips, thin bark. Seasonal forests : high diversity, tall trees with simpler canopy structure, deciduous in dry season, thicker bark, at drier extreme, subjected to fires. Fauna : primates, sloths, many rodents, small antelopes, tiger, jaguar, many bird species, extremely high insect diversity. Climate : Evergreen forest : always warm (temps above 65 o F, max 85- 95 o F) no frost or cool season, rainfall usually above 100”, evenly distributed (may be a short dry period). Seasonal forest : similar temperatures (many be warmer just before rains), rainfall seasonal over 4-8 months only, remainder of year dry. Edaphic conditions
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course BIOS 230 taught by Professor Gibbons during the Fall '08 term at Ill. Chicago.

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Lecture XXIII � Biomes - Lecture XXIII Biomes and...

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