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Lecture XVI - Competition

Lecture XVI - Competition - Lecture XVI Competition What is...

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Lecture XVI - Competition
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What is Competition? Riklefs (2001): “any use or defense of a resource by one individual that reduces the availability of that resource to other individuals.” Morin (1999): “interspecific competition … a mutually negative (-/-) interaction between two or more species within the same guild or trophic level.” Keddy (1989): “the negative effects which one organism has upon another by consuming, or controlling access to, a resource that is limited in availability.”
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Conditions Resource or resources utilized by both (all) species or individuals (intraspecific) Resource/s limiting or potentially limiting to species Presence of other individuals/species reduces access to resource
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Competitive Exclusion G.F. Gause (1934) experimental studies of competition: Paramecium aurelia and P. caudatum alone and together. Each species grew well alone, but in mixture only P. aurelia persisted Gause’s competitive exclusion principle: “No two species may occupy exactly the same niche.” Corollary: In a given place, there should be no more species than the number of limiting resources. http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/Pop_Models/OCX/Compete/paramec.gif
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Competitive Exclusion Gause’s competitive exclusion principle: “No two species may occupy exactly the same niche.” Corollary: In a given place, there should be no more species than the number of limiting resources.
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Types of Interspecific Competition – Mechanism Individuals of different species may use different mechanisms to compete Interference: Overgrowth Territorial Encounter Chemical Exploitative: Consumptive
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Interference Competition Overgrowth – physical denial of access to resources by sessile organisms Territorial – co-opting of resources by mobile organisms http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/mbiolaq/ind_labs/modelling/pictures/Community.jpg http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/goldeneyeterr.gif
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Interference Competition Chemical – also called allelopathy, when an organism releases chemicals that suppress competitors Encounter – actual encounters between competitors, my include physical altercations http://www.units.muohio.edu/dragonfly/itc/allelopathy.gif http://hyenas.zoology.msu.edu/images/crocuta/shah-lionkillingahyena.jpg
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