Lecture XIII - Physical Ecology

Lecture XIII - Physical Ecology - Lecture XIII Physical...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture XIII Physical Adaptations to the Environment Local Environment While local environmental are, in large part, determined by large scale global factors, organisms typically experience only the small scale local environmental factors The local environment is the biotic and abiotic substances and entities which directly influence the energy and chemical balances of an organism throughout its lifetime Interaction with Environment All living organisms differ in their compositions and level of organization (internal) than their surroundings All living organisms must sustain their structural and compositional integrity Finally, organisms must also invest in activities leading to successful reproduction Requirements The primary problems of organisms are: Obtaining the energy, Obtaining organic materials Obtaining nutrients These are needed for: Sustaining itself Replacing losses to the environment Reproduction Acquiring Energy So, for life processes, an organism needs to obtain both energy and organic materials There are two basic solutions for obtaining energy and organic material: Heterotrophy Autotrophy Autotrophs Autotrophs obtain their energy from inorganic sources, use this energy to produce their own organic materials. Two sources of energy: photoautotrophs obtain energy from light chemoautotrophs obtain energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds such as H 2 S, NH 4 + http://uweb.cas.usf.edu/~kscott/tubiessmall.gif http://rochesterenvironment.com/images/plants&trees.JPG Heterotrophs Heterotrophs obtain their energy by consuming organic (biological) sources of carbon-rich food, which they oxidize. Obtain most of their primary organic compounds through the consumption of other organisms http://www.zeiss.com/C12567BE00472A5C/GraphikTitelIntern/Yeast-TimelapsePopUp/$File/Yeast-TimelapsePopUp.jpg http://updatecenter.britannica.com/eb/image?binaryId=13486&rendTypeId=4 http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/animcoll.jpg Plants Starting with the major autotrophs, plants, and with the basic resource energy Plants obtain their energy from sunlight, which is absorbed by various substances (pigments) http://andromeda.cavehill.uwi.edu/Aquatic%20plant%20photos/pond%20and%20palms%20use.JPG Plants Different pigments in plants have different absorption spectra : chlorophyll in terrestrial plants absorbs red and violet light, reflects green and blue water absorbs strongly in red and IR, scatters violet and blue, leaving green at depth Energy Transformation Compounds contain energy in their chemical bonds : energy is required to create bonds energy is released when bonds are broken Photosynthesis and Respiration Plants store the energy collected from light in chemical bonds between molecules This process is called photosynthesis The process of breaking down those bonds to obtain the energy is called respiration Respiration occurs in all living organisms Oxidation and Reduction...
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Lecture XIII - Physical Ecology - Lecture XIII Physical...

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