ANTH 105 3-Nov-2009 Ch 11_1

ANTH 105 3-Nov-2009 Ch 11_1 - Ch 11: Rise of the genus Homo...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 11: Rise of the genus Homo Who was Homo erectus ? Lifeways of Homo erectus Cooling event 1.8 mya Effects of climate change Increasingly open habitats More seasonal food sources Who was Homo erectus? A major shift ~1.8 MYA Changes in: a. Morphology Uniquely shaped skull Bigger bodies Longer legs Modern-like gait Larger brain b. Technology Tools c. Social organization d. Behavior Dispersal out of Africa High degree of variation Changes in the skull A thick-boned robust skull longer than wide Angularity of skull enhanced by prominent supraorbital torus (brow ridge) Thickened angular torus and occipital torus Sagittal keel and metopic keel Comparing H. erectus with H. sapiens One species or two? Asian H. erectus and African H. ergaster Shovel-shaped incisors Enhanced marginal ridges Distinctive shovel-shaped appearance on the lingual aspect Also in many modern persons of Asian origin, including many Native Americans. Changes in the post-cranial skeleton Bigger bodies Changes in the post-cranial skeleton Bigger bodies Barrel-shaped chest Narrower hips Longer legs Shorter arms Modern-like gait Fully-committed biped The Nariokotome boy: KNM WT 15000 Tall 54 6 adult Long legs, narrow hips & shoulders Heavily muscled Allens rule Allens rule Loss of body hair If sweating is now the key to temperature regulation, we should expect hairlessness Changes in the brain Brain size increases as body size increases. (This does not necessarily imply improvement in cognitive ability) Regional/temporal variation in brain size Indicates modification/refinement of cognitive ability increasing within human lineage The expensive brain Brain tissue is expensive (calorically) to develop and maintain Primate brains use more energy than other mammals: Cats and dogs: 4-6% Macaques: 9% Humans: 20% May be related to the different structure of our brains (the high proportion of cerebral cortex) Total body weight 2% 98% 20% 80% Total body weight 2% 98% brain other organs Metabolic energy 20% 80% brain other organs The (calorically) expensive brain...
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course ANTH 105 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Fall '09 term at Ill. Chicago.

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ANTH 105 3-Nov-2009 Ch 11_1 - Ch 11: Rise of the genus Homo...

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