ANTH 105 5-Nov-2009 Ch 12

ANTH 105 5-Nov-2009 Ch 12 - Ch12:ArchaicHomosapiensand...

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Ch 12: Archaic Homo sapiens and  Neanderthals Hominid evolution in the Mid- to Late  Pleistocene  Archaic Homo sapiens  Behavior of Archaic Homo sapiens  The Neanderthals  Neanderthal behavior  Phylogenetic and taxonomic issues 
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The Pleistocene epoch Upper: 130,000 - 12,000 y bp Middle: 900,000 - 130,000 y bp Lower: 1.8 m y bp - 900,000 y bp
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Major questions about the Middle Pleistocene 1. How much information is missing from the fossil record? 2. How many hominid species were present? And how do we tell them apart? 3. Who were the Neanderthals?  And how did they behave?
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Middle Pleistocene: the earliest glaciation of  continental Europe
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Multiple overlapping species in the Middle  Pleistocene fossil record
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Multiple overlapping species in the Middle  Pleistocene fossil record
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Cranial features of Anatomically Modern H. sapiens Large, gracile skull Neither muscular ridges nor  supraorbital torus are strongly  developed Occipital bun normally  missing Mastoid process is large and  pyramidal Jaws and teeth are small Well-developed chin Smaller face is retracted  under skull 
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Cranial features of Archaic H. sapiens Have a blend of H. erectus and H. sapiens traits Robust bodies and large faces Larger brain, more sapiens-like skull Large, arching brow ridge  Large nasal aperture Thick-boned cranial vault Inflated cheeks
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European Archaic H. sapiens Homo heidelbergensis  mandible found near Mauer,  Germany in 1907.  If label archaic Homo sapiens  is withdrawn, then H.  heidelbergensis has priority  (as earliest discovered) in  taxonomic nomenclature.
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European finds European sites with archaic H. sapiens remains: Petralona cranium (Greece) 150,000 – 300,000 KYA Steinheim cranium (Germany); Swanscombe partial cranium  (England) 200,000 – 250,000 KYA Arago 21 cranium (France) 300,000 – 600,000 KYA Petralona cranium
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Sima de los Huesos, Spain Bone pit at Sierra de  Atapuerca, 350,000 –  600,000 KY Contents included 40 archaic  Homo sapiens individuals,  aged 4 to 35, both male and  female
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African Archaic Homo sapiens Africa has yielded four crania Bodo, Ethiopia, 600,000 KYA where cut marks from defleshing  scarred cranium Kawbe cranium, Zambia, 125,000 KYA Ndutu partial cranium, Tanzania, 200,000 – 400,000 KYA Sale partial cranium, Morocco, 200,000 – 250,000 KYA
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Kabwe (left) Bodo cranium (right) showing cut marks
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Asian Archaic Homo sapiens Differ in appearance from H. erectus Chinese craniums include those from Dali, Maba, Jinniushan, and  Yunxian Indian remains include a partial calveria from the Narmada Valley
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course ANTH 105 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Fall '09 term at Ill. Chicago.

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ANTH 105 5-Nov-2009 Ch 12 - Ch12:ArchaicHomosapiensand...

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