ANTH 105 10-Nov-2009 Ch 13

ANTH 105 10-Nov-2009 Ch 13 - Ch13:TheOrigin,Dispersal,and

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Ch 13: The Origin, Dispersal, and  Bioarchaeology of  Homo sapiens Emergence of modern humans Anatomy and distribution of early  humans Archaeology of modern human origins Molecular genetics and human origins Models of modern human origins Interpreting models of human origins
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Anatomically modern humans (AMH) emerge When: Upper Paleolithic (Later  Stone Age)  Where: Africa: ~200kya Near East: ~90kya Southeast Asia: ~35kya Europe: ~32kya New World: ~13kya?
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Distribution of AMH
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Recognizing Anatomically Modern Humans Face 1. Small teeth and jaws 2. Retracted face with an obvious  chin
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Recognizing Anatomically Modern Humans Skull 1. Rounded, gracile skull 2. High forehead 3. Minimal brow ridges
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Recognizing Anatomically Modern Humans
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Recognizing Anatomically Modern Humans Postcrania 1. Less robust  2. Longer limbs 3. Thinner bones Increased reliance on tool use?
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Oldest specimens • Africa: Modern  Homo sapiens   finds, very small in number, date  200,000 to 600,000 YA, and  overlap with archaic  Homo  sapiens At left: Ethiopia 198 kya
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AMH in Africa Transitional forms appear by 150,000  at Herto and Ngaloba in East Africa  and Florisbad in South Africa. • Herto site: ~160,000ya 3 transitional skulls 600+ stone tools Fully modern humans well  established throughout Africa by  100,000 KYA.
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South African fossils Klasies River Mouth (left) 90,000 – 120,000 KYA  MSA stone tools Border Cave (right)  50,000 – 80,000 MSA stone tools, microliths
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Israel’s Early Humans • Sites at Skuhl and Qafzeh on Mt.  Carmel held reliable evidence of  the oldest anatomically modern  humans found outside Africa  (90,000 – 110,000 KYA). They alternated with Neandertal  occupations of the region, both  using Mousterian tool technology.
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Europe’s Early Humans Aurignacian tools are seen as  indicators of early modern  humans in Europe. These  appear circa 40,000 KYA. Skeletal remains, with an  equivalent age, however,  haven’t been located to date.
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Oldest fossil evidence of AMH in Europe • Oase 1 single mandible from Romania 36,000 - 34,000 ya • mix of Neanderthal and modern  human traits Robustness (Nean) Mandibular foramen (Nean) Chin (AMH)
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Sites in the Czech Republic 35,000-25,000 ya Shared cranial features with  Neanderthals Some occipital bunning Some brow ridges
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Cro-Magnons • Discovered in 1868 Dordogne region of France Multiple Neanderthal sites too • 4 adults, one infant ~27,000ya
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Modern Humans in Asia • Archaic H. sapiens pre-100 kya Gap in fossil record from 100 – 
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ANTH 105 10-Nov-2009 Ch 13 - Ch13:TheOrigin,Dispersal,and

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