ANTH 105 12-Nov-2009 Ch 13

ANTH 105 12-Nov-2009 Ch 13 - Ch 13: The Or igin, Disper...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 13: The Or igin, Disper sal, and Bioar chaeology of H omo sapiens Bioarchaeology after the or igin of moder n humans The evolution of human bir th NOVA on Flor es M an H olocene Last 10 kya Physically, behaviorally, anatomically modern humans Presumably more likely to adapt behaviorally rather than [physically Major cultural transitions I nitial peopling of New World, Pacific I slands Origins of agriculture Colonization of New Wor ld Land routes or sea routes? Old & New Worlds connected with Bering land bridge 75-45 kya and 25-11 kya Settlements in the New Wor ld By 13 kya, Clovis culture present across North America Was there a pre-Clovis culture? Arrival in New World occurred during times of changing climates, coincided with mass extinctions of New World mega- fauna Oldest New Wor ld inhabitants Kennewick Man (8.4 kya, WA) (right) Browns Valley skull (8.7 kya, MN) Warm Mineral Springs skull (10 kya, FL) Much variation, do not typically show strong resemblance to contemporary Native American pops Colonization of Pacific I slands Although people crossed from Sunda to Sahul ~28 kya, most islands werent inhabited until 3.5+ kya. Peopling of the Pacific E Asian or island SE Asian pops Movement of people from island to island traceable by Lapita pottery style (right) Assumedly in outrigger canoes, Lapita peoples also brought with them pigs, dogs, (rats!), and agricultural crops H uman-envir onment inter action Spread of humans marked by modification of environment Evidence of deforestation I n S Pacific, extinction of land birds M ultiple sites of plant and animal domestication ~10,000-8,500 yr s ago (Diamond, 2002) Centr al questions 1. Why then ? 2. Why there ? 3. What consequences? Cause(s) of the or igin of agr icultur e Gradual changes : 1. I mprovements in human hunting skills lower avail of meat 2. Development of human technology to collect, process and store wild foods 1. On-going competition between human societies society w/better techniques could outcompete others 2. Population increase Cause(s) of the or igin of agr icultur e Trigger : End-of-Pleistocene climate changes in temperature, rainfall and unpredictability Common aspects of the emer gence of agr icultur e wor ld-wide Gradual transition: Hunter-gatherers increasingly begin to manipulate plan species Domesticated species: Genetically plastic Originally low value foods for hunter-gatherers Manipulation increased productivity Evolution of agr icultur e in I r an & I r aq Earliest evidence: 10,000 12,000 years ago Cultivation first seen more marginal environments Resulted in increased manipulation of wild cereal grains: Barley (Hordea spp.) Wheat (Triticum spp.) M or phological changes distinguishing the...
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course ANTH 105 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Fall '09 term at Ill. Chicago.

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ANTH 105 12-Nov-2009 Ch 13 - Ch 13: The Or igin, Disper...

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