ANTH 105 27-Oct-2009 Ch 11

ANTH 105 27-Oct-2009 Ch 11 - Ch11:RiseofthegenusHomo...

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Ch 11: Rise of the genus  Homo Homo  in Pliocene and  Pleistocene Defining the genus  Homo Earliest genus  Homo Early tool use Hunting & scavenging
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Relation of evolution to climate fluctuations 3 MYA: cyclic glaciation begins Auyuittuq National Park, Canada
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 Effects of severe glaciation on land masses At left, maximum glaciation of  the North American continent  at the peak of the last glacial  period about 18,000 years  ago Land bridges Changed shorelines
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Relation of evolution to climate fluctuations Subsequent periods of climatic fluctuation associated with Appearance of genus  Homo First evidence of stone tools Disappearance of Australopithecines
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Cooling event 1.8 mya                                                                             
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The Pleistocene epoch Upper: 130,000 - 12,000 y bp Middle: 900,000 - 130,000 y bp Lower: 1.8 m y bp - 900,000 y bp
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Habilines  Africa,   1.9 - 1.6 mya
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Richard & Louis Leakey
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habilis Where: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania When: 1.9 - 1.6 mya
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Important features of  habilis   2. Larger brains (600-800 cc) 3. Smaller teeth, thinner enamel 4. Rounded skulls; smaller, less prognathic faces; reduced jaw  musculature
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Important features of  habilis
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Homo habilis  or  Australopithecus habilis ? Members of the same genus should belong to the same adaptive  grade.
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H. habilis  or  A. habilis ? Homo Homo  shows: large brains smaller teeth changes in subsistence tools Australopithecus Later  Homo  is:  large terrestrial reduced sexual dimorphism hunting, food sharing,  paternal care
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Two species or variation within one species? KNM ER 1470 vs. KNM ER 1813
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Remember our definition of a biological species (Mayr 1942):  “groups of potentially or actually interbreeding populations, which  are reproductively isolated from other such groups.” How do we get this information from fossils? Type specimen
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2010 for the course ANTH 105 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Fall '09 term at Ill. Chicago.

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ANTH 105 27-Oct-2009 Ch 11 - Ch11:RiseofthegenusHomo...

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